Caution for using ANY and ALL essential oils: If pregnant or under a doctor’s care, ALWAYS consult your physician before using essential oils.

Get your herbs and oils at a place you can trust!

Starwest Botanicals not only utilizes their own milling and packaging operations for all organic herbs and bulk spices, they also conduct quality control testing on each and every product in their own laboratory.

With attention like that, you can be sure you will receive only the highest-quality organic herbs, dried herbs, organic spices, therapeutic essential oils and all natural products when you place an order with Starwest Botanicals

(Each essential oil profile lists the properties, actions, benefits, indications, cautions and companion oils)

Essential Oil Profiles

A B C D E F G H J K L M N O P R S T V W Y

-A-

Allspice (Pimenta Officinalis)

  • Additional Name(s): Pimento Berry
  • Color: Cocoa Brown
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Sharp yet sweet with a spicy, clove-like aroma.

Action: Anesthetic, analgesic, antioxidant, antiseptic, carminative, muscle relaxant, rubefacient, stimulant, tonic

Benefits, Indications: Allspice oil can be helpful for the digestive system, for cramp, flatulence, indigestion and nausea. It can help in cases of depression, nervous exhaustion, tension, neuralgia and stress, arthritis, muscle tone, stiffness, rheumatism, and depression.

Chemical Constituents: Eugenol, methyl eugenol, cineol, phellandrene, caryophyllene.

Companion Oils: Ginger, geranium, lavender, orange, patchouli, ylang ylang

Precautions: Allspice oil should only be used in low dilutions, as it is found to irritate the mucus membrane and to cause dermal irritation. Contraindicated in those with hemophilia and/or liver disease

Science and Research


Ambrette (Abelmoschus Moschatus)

  • Color: Pale Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Medium
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Musky, woody, and rich with floral undertones.

Action: Aphrodisiac, antidepressant, analgesic, antispasmodic, nervine, stimulant, carminative, stomachic.

Benefits, Indications: Aches, stiffness, poor blood circulation, cramps, fatigue, low blood pressure, anxiety, depression, nervous tension, stress-related conditions.

Ambrette is a calming, grounding, oil, with it’s real value being in perfumery, or the development of aphrodisiac / unisex / musk blends where it will add deep, provocative, notes without a distinct feminine influence, which is rare in aphrodisiac blends, which are typically quite feminine.

Chemical Constituents: Farnesyl acetate, farnesol, ambrettolide, decyl acetate, dodecyl acetate

Companion Oils: Floral oils, sandalwood, clary sage, cypress, patchouli, citrus oils

Precautions: Avoid use of the oil if it has oxidized. No known contraindications, but care should be taken as with all oils.

Science and Research


Amrys (Amyris Balsamifera)

  • Color: Pale Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thick
  • Perfumery Note: Base
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Mild
  • Scent: Reminiscent of benzoin, Amyris essential oil includes sweet, warm, vanilla notes with a woody, cedar-like character.

Action: Fixative, antiseptic, sedative

Benefits, Indications: Primarily used in perfumery/fragrancing and as a fixative. Limited application in flavoring, especially in liqueurs.

Chemical Constituents: Valerianol, a-Eudesmol, 7-epi-a-Eudesmol, 10-epi-Gamma-Eudesmol, Elemol

Companion Oils: Cedarwood, citronella, lavandin, oakmoss

Precautions: No known contraindications, but care should be taken as with all oils.

Science and Research


Angelica (Angelica Archangelica)

  • Color: Pale Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Base
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium – Strong

Action: Anticoagulant, sedating to the nervous system, reduces inflammation of intestinal wall. Emotionally it is calming, assisting in the release of pent-up negative feelings.

Benefits, Indications: Bruises, colic, coughs, respiratory infections, indigestion, menopause, premenstrual tension, loss of appetite, rheumatic conditions.

Chemical Constituents: A-pinned, camphene, B-pinene, sabinene, d-3-carene, a-phellandrene, myrcene, limonene, B-phellandrene, cis-ocimene, trans-ocimene, p-cymene, terpinolene, copaene, bornyl acetate, terpinen-4-ol, cryptone, B-bisabolene, humulene monoxide, tridecanolide, pentadecanolide.

Companion Oils: Patchouli, vetiver, clary sage, most citrus oils

Precautions: Photosensitizing, avoid if diabetic.

Science and Research


Anise Oil (Pimpinella anisum)

Note: Anise and Star Anise essential oils are frequently grouped together and are at times confused with each other as both possess a similar aroma and have similar, but not identical, properties.

  • Color: Clear
  • Oil Consistency: Thin, watery
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Distinctive scent of licorice. Rich and sweet.

Action: Antibacterial, antifungal, sedative, carminative, antiseptic, anti-epileptic, antihysteric, antispasmodic, insect repellent, antirheumatic, aperient, cordial, decongestant, digestive, expectorant, stimulant, vermifuge.

Benefits, Indications: Bronchitis, colds, coughs, flatulence, flu, muscle aches, rheumatism.  Aniseed provides relief for arthritic pain, is used to clean wounds and help protect against infections. It is also used to help eliminate congestion in the respiratory tract and has phytoestrogenic properties to help increase milk production.

It is both a narcotic and a sedative and is thus can help ease epileptic and hysteric episodes. Anise oil can be added to toothpaste, mouthwash and syrups to help maintain fresh breath and good oral health.

Similar to coconut oil, aniseed oil is a safer alternative to chemical head lice treatments and since it is toxic to insects, is frequently used as an insecticide. Anise and anise oils are utilized in processed meats such as pepperoni, pizza topics, Italian sausage and other similar food products.

It was used in ancient times to increase libido and as an aphrodisiac. A large number of applications in the flavor and fragrance industry, can be used to mask the scent or flavor of other essential oils and useful in perfumery and relaxing massage.

Chemical Constituents: (E)-Anethole, (+)-Limonene, Estragole, Anisyl alcohol

Companion Oils: Bay, cedarwood, eucalyptus, dill, fennel, ginger, mandarin, petitgrain, peppermint, rosemary, spearmint

Precautions: A dermal irritant in high doses. Varied precautions abound for those with hypersensitive skin or with skin problems. A dermal maximum of 2.4% is recommended. Anise oil may inhibit blood clotting and is contraindicated in pregnancy/breastfeeding, endometriosis and estrogen-dependent cancers. Avoid use with children under five.

Avoid use of the oil if it has oxidized. In heavy doses, it has narcotic effects and slows down respiration and circulation. It is poisonous to certain small animals and birds.

Science and Research


A B C D E F G H J K L M N O P R S T V W Y

-B-

Balsam Fir (Abies Balsamea)

  • Color: Pale amber to brown
  • Oil Consistency: Viscous
  • Scent: Rich, balsamy, sweet, like vanilla
  • Perfumery Note: Base

Action: Antitumoral, anticancerous, antioxidant, combats respiratory infections, antifungal. It may also ease the pain of arthritis and bursitis. Antiseptic, antidepressant, stimulant, mucolytic, expectorant, mild diuretic, anti-inflammatory

Benefits, Indications: Lifts the spirits, especially during the dark winter months; powerful chest decongestant, stimulates the circulatory system, soothes pain in muscles and joints, supports healthy immune functioning, treats arthritis, removes fluid from joints, eases back pain, transforms negative energy and thoughts.

Chemical Constituents: Sesquiterpenes, beta-pinene, delta-3-carene, alpha-pinene and terpene ester bornyl acetate, where beta-pinene and delta-3-carene have effective antibacterial properties.

Companion Oils: Silver fir, white fir, cedar, frankincense, palo santo, seabuckthorn berry, rose otto, clary sage, sandalwood

Precautions: Could result in skin irritation (dilution is recommended). Avoid sunlight for 3 to 6 hours after use. Although it may be used as a dietary supplement, it is advised not to use it in this manner for children under 6 years of age.

Science and Research


Basil (Ocimum Basilicum)

  • Color: Clear
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Sweet, herbaceous, licorice-like, slightly camphorous.

Action: Analgesic, antidepressant, antispasmodic, antivenomous, carminative, cephalic, diaphoretic, digestive, emmenagogue, expectorant, febrifuge, insecticidal, nervine, stomachic, sudorific, tonic, stimulant

Benefits, Indications: Migraines, mental fatigue, scanty menstrual periods. Basil oil is a good tonic for the treatment of nervous disorders and stress related headaches, migraines and allergies.

It is used to clear the mind and relieve intellectual fatigue, while giving clarity and mental strength. It has a beneficial action on the respiratory tract and is often used for asthma, bronchitis and sinus infections.

It is also effective in cases of constipation, nausea, vomiting and cramps, and is also good when used for menstrual problems. Due to the emmenagogue properties, it is often used to relieve scanty periods and normalizing menses.

It helps to minimize uric acid in the blood, thus relieving gout. It is useful in arthritis as well and when used on the skin, it helps to control acne. In general it refreshes the skin and can also be used on insect bites. Also good for bronchitis, colds, coughs, exhaustion, flatulence, flu, insect bites, insect repellent, rheumatism, and sinusitis.

Chemical Constituents: A-pinene, camphene, b-pinene, myrcene, limonene, cis-ocimene, camphor, linalool, methyl chavicol, y-terpineol, citronellol, geraniol, methyl cinnamate, eugenol

Companion Oils: Bergamot, Black pepper, cedarwood, fennel, ginger, geranium, grapefruit, lavender, lemon, marjoram, neroli, verbena

Precautions: Do not use if epileptic. Use sparingly with caution. High doses may be carcinogenic due to its methyl chavicol content. Avoid in cases of liver problems.

Science and Research


Bay Laurel (Laurus Nobilis)

  • Color: Deep Golden Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin – Medium
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium – Strong
  • Scent: Medicinal, fruity, spicy, herbaceous aroma.

Action: Antiseptic, antibiotic, analgesic, antineuralgic, antibacterial (staph, strep, E. coli), antispasmodic, aperitif, astringent, emmenagogue, febrifuge, insecticidal, cholagogue, sedative, stomachic, sudorific, tonic.

Benefits, Indications: This warming oil is often used in aromatherapy since it is a good antiseptic for the respiratory system, perks up the digestive system, settles stomach pain and expels wind, while promoting confidence, courage and insight.

Topically, it is most often used to combat hair loss and to improve the health of the scalp in general. Dandruff, hair care, neuralgia, oily skin, poor circulation, sprains, strains.

Supplemental Information: Bay and Benzoin Uses

Chemical Constituents: Eugenol, myrcene, chavicol, methyl eugenol, linalool, limonene.

Companion Oils: Cedarwood, coriander, eucalyptus, geranium, ginger, juniper, lavender, lemon, orange, rose, rosemary, thyme, ylang-ylang

Precautions: Avoid in alcoholism, in hemophilia, in prostate cancer, with kidney and liver problems and if taking anticoagulants. Use in moderation. Moderately toxic and a mucous membrane irritant. Pregnant women should avoid it.

Science and Research


Beeswax Absolute (Apis Mellifera)

  • Color: Deep Golden Brown
  • Oil Consistency: Medium
  • Perfumery Note: Base
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Mild – Medium
  • Scent: Rich, sweet, floral, honey aroma.

Action: Aromatic, fixative

Benefits, Indications: Perfumery, fragrancing and diffusion. Beeswax absolute has comforting, spiritually balancing and lifting, solar properties when used in aromatherapeutic blends and recalls the joyful activity of bees.

Companion Oils: Floral oils, including neroli, linden blossom, rose, ylang ylang, citrus oils, vetiver, sandalwood, jasmine, tobacco, helichrysum, roman chamomile

Precautions: Safety information is not readily available. Since Beeswax Absolute is used for perfumery and is not used as a therapeutic oil, use with caution and common sense. It may be wise to avoid in anyone who cannot consume honey or use beeswax.

Science and Research


Benzoin (Styrax Benzoin Dryander)

  • Additional Name(s): Styrax, Onycha
  • Color: Golden brown
  • Oil Consistency: Viscous
  • Scent: Warm, balsamy, vanilla like
  • Perfumery Note: Base / middle

Action: Antiseptic, antidepressant, astringent, anti-inflammatory, carminative, cordial, deodorant, diuretic, expectorant, sedative, vulnerary

Benefits, Indications: Benzoin may be used with benefit in all cold conditions related to the lungs, such as colds, influenza, coughs, asthma, bronchitis. It may be used externally or in inhalations. Most of the volatile principle is eliminated via the lungs.

It is also of value in cold affections of the genito-urinary system, and may be used in cystitis, albuminuria, or any conditions where there is infection or discharge, such as spermatorrhea, gonorrhea, and perhaps leucorrhea.

Benzoin oil can be used for bronchitis, coughs, colds, wounds, acne, eczema, psoriasis, rheumatism, arthritis, scar tissue, circulation, nervous tension, stress, muscle pains, chilblains, rashes and mouth ulcers.

Supplemental Information: Bay and Benzoin Uses

Chemical Constituents: Benzoic acid, benzyl benzoate, benzyl alcohol, vanillin, coniferyl benzoate

Companion Oils: Bergamot, coriander, frankincense, juniper, lavender

Precautions: Can cause irritation to sensitive skin. When concentration is needed, it is best to avoid using benzoin oil as it can have a very relaxing effect.

Science and Research


Bergamot (Citrus Bergamia)

  • Color: Light green to greenish-yellow (aging to brownish-olive color)
  • Oil Consistency: Watery
  • Scent: Sweet, bright, lively, sharp, fresh citrus with spicy, balsamy floral undertones
  • Perfumery Note: Top / middle

Action: Calming, antiseptic, anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, provides hormonal support.

Benefits, Indications: Stress, loss of appetite, indigestion, agitation, depression, infection, inflammation, intestinal parasites, rheumatism, insomnia, vaginal candida, insect repellent.

May help bronchitis, cold sores, oily complexion, anxiety, nervous tension, coughs, urinary tract infections, respiratory infection, sore throat, thrush, tonsillitis.

May also help acne, abscesses, anxiety, boils, depression, halitosis, itching, loss of appetite, psoriasis. It has a powerful effect on stimulating the liver, stomach and spleen.

Chemical Constituents: A-pinene, B-pinene, myrcene, limonene, a-bergaptene, B-bisabolene, linalool, linalyl acetate, nerol, neryl acetate, geraniol, geraniol acetate, a-terpineol

Companion Oils: Black pepper, clary sage, cypress, frankincense, geranium, jasmine, mandarin, nutmeg, orange, rosemary, sandalwood, vetiver, ylang-ylang

Precautions: Photosensitizing – Do not use if the area of application will be exposed to sunlight for 24 hours due to its phototoxicity.

Science and Research


Bergamot Mint (Mentha Citrata / Mentha Aquatica L. var. Citrata)

  • Alternate Name(s): Lemon Mint
  • Color: Clear
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium – Strong
  • Scent: Fresh, citrusy (bergamot-like), slightly floral and herbaceous.

Action: Anti-infection, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, tonic, stimulant

Benefits, Indications: Primarily used for perfumery and fragrancing applications. This oil is believed to be emotionally uplifting and calming. Used for muscle spasms, traumatic pain, intestinal parasites, flatulence, irritable bowel.

Chemical Constituents: Linalyl acetate, linalool, b-terpineol, 1,8-cineole, geranyl acetate

Companion Oils: Basil, citrus oils, geranium, lavender, rose, ylang ylang

Precautions: Avoid while pregnant. May cause skin irritation.

Science and Research



Birch (Betula Alleghaniensis)

(very similar in chemistry to wintergreen)

  • Color: Pale yellow
  • Scent: Balsamic
  • Perfumery Note: Top / middle

Action: Analgesic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, liver stimulant, supports bone function.

Benefits, Indications: Arthritis, rheumatism, inflammation, muscular pain, tendonitis, hypertension, cramps. Birch and wintergreen contain an active principal similar to cortisone that is beneficial for bone, muscle and joint discomfort. May be helpful for cystitis, acne, bladder infection, gout, gallstones, edema, eczema, skin diseases, ulcers and urinary tract disorders.

Constituents: Salicylic acid, methyl salicylate, betulene and betulenol

Companion Oils: Wintergreen, basil, cypress, geranium, juniper, lavender, lemongrass, marjoram, peppermint, roman chamomile

Precautions: Do not use if epileptic. Possible skin irritant. Skin test for allergies. Avoid during pregnancy.

Bitter Orange (Citrus Aurantium var Amara)

  • Color: Dark yellow to brown yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Watery
  • Scent: Dry, fresh, rich, sweet undertone
  • Perfumery Note: Top / middle

Action: Antiseptic, carminative, sedative, stomachic, digestive, antidepressant, tranquilizer, anti-inflammatory, choleretic, antifungal, antibacterial

Benefits, Indications: Bitter orange peel is also used to improve appetite, and, in surprising contrast, it is also used for weight loss. Other uses for the fruit and peel are upset stomach, nasal congestion, and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).

Bitter orange peel is applied to the skin for swelling (inflammation) of the eyelid and its lining, as well as the retina in the eye. It is also used for bleeding from the retina, exhaustion accompanying colds, headaches, nerve pain, muscular pain, joint pain, bruises, swelling of the veins (phlebitis), and bed sores.

Can help restore an acne skin to normal and is prophylactic against the signs of aging. Bitter orange, both taken by mouth and applied to the skin, has many uses. But so far, science has shown only that the oil, when applied to the skin, might be effective for treatment of fungal skin infections (ringworm, jock itch, and athlete’s foot).

Chemical Constituents: Limonene, b-myrcene, linalool, bergapten

Companion Oils: Lavender, bergamot, lemon, clary sage, myrrh, sandalwood, nutmeg, cinnamon bark, clove bud

Precautions: Orange oil is phototoxic. Dermatitis can occur in select individuals. Orange oil, as with all citrus oils, has a six month shelf life. Avoid using Bitter Orange Oil that has oxidized due to a greater risk of skin sensitization.

Science and Research


Black Pepper (Piper Nigrum)

  • Color: Pale whitish yellow to greenish-yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Watery
  • Scent: Warm, fresh, spicy, woody, strong, peppery
  • Perfumery Note: Top / middle

Action: Analgesic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antitoxic, aphrodisiac, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, febrifuge, laxative, rubefacient, tonic (especially of the spleen).

Benefits, Indications: May increase cellular oxygenation, support the digestive glands, stimulate the endocrine system, increase energy and help rheumatoid arthritis. It may also help with loss of appetite, chills, cholera, respiratory infections, indigestion, constipation, coughs, diarrhea, dysentery, influenza, nausea, neuralgia, poor circulation, poor muscle tone, quinsy, sprains, toothache, vertigo, viruses and vomiting.

Chemical Constituents: A-thujone, a-pinene, camphene, sabinene, b-pinene, a-phellandrene, myrcene, limonene, caryophyllene, b-farnesene, b-bisabolene, linalool, terpinen-4-ol

Companion Oils: Bergamot, clary sage, clove, coriander, fennel, frankincense, geranium, ginger, grapefruit, lavender, juniper, lemon, lime, mandarin, sage, sandalwood, ylang-ylang

Precautions: Black pepper oil may cause irritation to sensitive skins and using too much could over-stimulate the kidneys. It should be avoided in pregnancy due to its possible skin sensitizing effect.

Science and Research


Blood Orange (Citrus Sinensis)

Note: The blood orange is considered a variety of sweet orange and shares the same botanical name. Blood orange is a little more tantalizing, bright and tart than sweet orange Oil. It can be used instead of sweet orange in both aromatic and therapeutic blends.

  • Color: Ranges from Pale Yellow – Orangish
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium – Strong
  • Scent: The aroma is similar to Sweet Orange, however Blood Orange is slightly tarter and has a more complex aroma.

Action: Antiseptic, antidepressant, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, carminative, diuretic, cholagogue, sedative, tonic

Benefits,  Indications: It is a sunny and radiant oil, bringing happiness and warmth to the mind and helps people to relax and helps children to sleep at night. Blood orange oil can be used effectively on the immune system, as well as for colds and flu and to eliminate toxins from the body. It is a good diuretic and is most useful in balancing water retention and obesity.

Its lymphatic stimulant action further helps to balance water processes, detoxification, aiding the immune system and general well-being. For the digestive system, blood orange oil can help with constipation, dyspepsia and as a general tonic. It is also useful in cases of nervous tension and stress.

Chemical Constituents: A-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, limonene, linalool, citronellal, neral, geranial

Companion Oils: Black pepper, cinnamon, cloves, ginger, frankincense, sandalwood, vetiver

Precautions: It is a safe nontoxic, non-irritant and non-sensitizing oil, yet care must be taken with it since it can have a phototoxic effect. It should therefore preferably not be applied before going out into sunlight for prolonged periods.

Science and Research


Blue Cypress (Callitris Intratropica)

  • Color: Clear to Pale Blue
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top/Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Fresh, sweet, with notes of lemon and cedar.

Action: Anti-inflammatory, antiviral

Benefits, Indications: Arthritis, asthma, fragrance fixative. This essential oil is also useful as an insect repellent. It also relieves abdominal cramps and minor aches and pains. Effective against herpes simplex, herpes zoster, cold sores, human papilloma virus.

Chemical Constituents: B-eudesmol, dihydrocolumellarin, guaiol, gamma-eudesmol, a-Eudesmol

Companion Oils: Sandalwood, blood orange, cedar, eucalyptus, rosemary, laurel

Precautions: Minimal documented information on this oil. No contraindications found. Dilution not required except for the most sensitive skin.

Blue Tansy (Tanacetum Annuum)

  • Color: Deep Blue
  • Oil Consistency: Medium
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Sweet, fruity, with subtle floral, camphorous and herbaceous undertones.

Action: Anti-inflammatory, anti-allergen and antifungal, analgesic, relieves itching, nervine, antihistamine, hypotensive, hormone-like effects

Benefits, Indications:. Blue tansy, like the other ‘blue’ oils, is used for sore muscles, strains, arthritis, rheumatism, and sciatica. Also used, as are other chamomile oils, in treating skin problems, providing soothing calming and cleansing action useful for burns, blisters, inflamed wounds, ulcers, boils, dermatitis, eczema, rashes, wounds, and hypersensitive skin problems. Reportedly smooths out broken capillaries, improving elasticity and tissue strength.

Chemical Constituents: Chamazulene, b-myrcene, camphor, sabinene, b-eudesmol, 3,6-dihydrochamazulene, b-pinene, a-phellandrene

Companion Oils: Balsam fir, bergamot, chamomile-roman, clary sage, cypress, frankincense, rose geranium, grapefruit, jasmine, cistus / labdanum, lavender, lemon, marjoram, naouli, neroli, patchouli, spruce, ravensara, rose, rosemary, tea tree, ylang ylang

Precautions: Do not use on women with endocrine imbalance. Do not use during pregnancy, on babies, children or the elderly. A drug interaction may occur with Blue Tansy when using drugs metabolized by CYP2D6.

Boldo/Boldu (Peumus Boldus)

  • Alternative Name(s): Boldu
  • Color: Yellow
  • Perfumery Note: Since Boldo is not used in aromatherapy, it’s perfumery note is irrelevant.
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Disagreeable.

Action: Anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, antiseptic, cholagogue, digestive, diuretic, hepatic, insecticide, narcotic, antimicrobial, stimulant, vermifuge

Benefits, Indications: Very effective as a sedative of inflammation, particularly conditions pertaining to the liver, stomach, intestines, and other parts of the digestive system. It increases liver bile secretion, helping decomposition and resulting digestion of food, while helping to maintain the balance of acid and base in the stomach. Due to the highly toxic properties of boldo,

it is very effective as an antimicrobial agent. It kills microbes and inhibits their growth and is equally effective on bacteria, fungi, protozoa, or virus. Since boldo excels at countering infections, it can be used to protect wounds against septic and tetanus, which are typically caused due to infection by bacteria.

Boldo kills intestinal worms (both roundworm and tapeworm) and their spawn. It can also be used to counter other worms such as hookworms. Gallstones, liver and gallbladder pain, cystitis, rheumatism, genito-urinary infections. Boldo is used in the perfume industry.

Chemical Constituents: A-pinene, B-pinene, camphene, limonene, y-terpinene, p-cymene, ascaridole, cineole, linalool – the component ascaridole is considered responsible for its toxic behavior.

Companion Oils: Boldo is not used in aromatherapy, therefore there is no listing of companion oils.

Precautions: Extremely toxic! Boldo should not be used in therapy and is considered harmful to the human body even when used in very small doses. Boldo is not a home remedy and should not be used, despite studying its applications on the symptoms given below. It is highly toxic and a even a slight dose can have very serious consequences.

Science and Research


Boronia (Boronia Megastigma)

Notes: This oil is expensive and difficult to find (especially unadulterated).

  • Additional Name(s): Mountain Pepper
  • Color: Dark Green
  • Oil Consistency: Thick
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Fruity, spicy, fresh with rich, floral undertone

Action: Aromatic

Benefits, Indications: Primarily used in perfumery. Uplifting, refreshing, energising. Also an excellent food flavor enhancer for citrus and berry formulations.

Chemical Constituents: (E)-B-Ionene, heptadecene, (Z)-methyl cinnamate,N-tiglamide, (E)-methyl cinnamate, (E)-cinnamic acid

Companion Oils: Bergamot, clary sage, helichrysum, mimosa, sandalwood, violet

Precautions: No known contraindications, but care should be taken as with all oils.

Buchu (Barosma Betulina)

  • Color: Dark, Yellowish-Brown
  • Oil Consistency: Thin – becomes thicker as it ages
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Sweet, minty-camphorous aroma with hints of blackcurrant

Action: Antimicrobial, antiseptic, carminative, diuretic, insecticidal, tonic

Benefits, Indications: Urinary tract infections, digestive problems, gout, rheumatism, coughs and colds. Buchu essential oil promotes the removal of unwanted substances, such as toxins like uric acid, excess salts, excess water, and fat by increasing urination, both in frequency and quantity.

This also helps to keep the urinary tracts and kidneys clean and free from infection. This essential oil can be used to treat cystitis, excess cellulite, and bladder ailments. It is an efficient detoxifier as well. Aids in digestion by fighting indigestion that is caused by microbial or bacterial action. It also stimulates the secretion of digestive juices into the stomach and thereby facilitates digestion.

This essential oil works well in giving relief from rheumatism and arthritis by detoxifying the body through the removal of toxins (uric acid) from the body, since it has diuretic properties. Some have theorized that it may have been applied topically as an insect repellant.

Buchu oil is not usually used in aromatherapy, but as an infusion (tea) it can help with infections, digestive problems, coughs, colds and rheumatism. Buchu oil is widely used in the perfume industry, as well as a component in artificial fruit flavors, alcoholic beverages, frozen dairy desserts, candy, condiments and relishes.

Chemical Constituents: D-pulegone, iso-pulegone, diosphenol, 4-diosphenol, iso-menthone, menthone

Companion Oils: Cedarwood, frankincense, ginger, jasmine, lavender, lemon, neroli, orange, palmarosa, patchouli, rosewood, sandalwood, ylang-ylang

Precautions: Not for use in pregnancy except under the supervision of a qualified healthcare practitioner. Is toxic in nature and should be used only in mild doses. Use with caution in persons with kidney inflammation.

A B C D E F G H J K L M N O P R S T V W Y

-C-

Cade (Rectified) (Juniperus Oxycedrus)

  • Additional Name(s): Juniper Tar, Prickly Juniper, Prickly Cedar
  • Color: Generally Light to Medium Brown
  • Oil Consistency: Medium-Thick
  • Perfumery Note: Base
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Smoky, similar to the aroma of burning wood or tar.

Action: Fixative, calmative, antiseptic, analgesic, antimicrobial, antipruritic, disinfectant, parasiticide, vermifuge

Benefits, Indications: Cuts, dandruff, dermatitis, eczema, spots. Cade Essential Oil is used to treat skin issues such as eczema, dermatitis, hair loss, and age spots. It has a smoky, woody, leathery scent and used in fragrances, soap, and cosmetics. Cade emotionally brings in feelings of abuse that need to be grounded and released leading to laughter. It has been used for snakebites, leprosy, soothe toothaches, kill lice and their eggs, and heal skin conditions.

Chemical Constituents: Delta-Cadinene, torreyol, epicubenol, zonarene, b-Caryophyllene

Companion Oils: Cedarwood, clove bud, labdanum, origanum, rosemary, thyme

Precautions: Crude (unrectified) cade oil is potentially carcinogenic due to the presence of benzo[a]pyrene and should not be used internally or externally. Only rectified Cade oil should be used.

Science and Research


Cajeput (Melaleuca Leucadendra)

  • Additional Name(s): Cajuput
  • Color: Clear with a Yellow Tinge
  • Oil Consistency: Watery
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Fresh, campheros aroma with a fruity note.

Action: Antimicrobial, mild analgesic, antispasmodic, antineuralgic, antiseptic (pulmonary, urinary, intestinal), insecticidal, expectorant, decongestant, febrifuge, carminative, stimulant, sudorific, vermifuge and tonic.

Benefits, Indications: Arthritis, acne, respiratory infections, asthma, bronchitis, urinary complaints, coughs, cystitis, stiff joints, toothache, hay fever, bursitis, headaches, insect bites, intestinal problems, laryngitis, dysentery, psoriasis, rheumatism, sinusitis, oily skin, sore throat, and viral infections.

More Info: By promoting sweating, cajeput oil cools down the body and helps with infections such as colds, laryngitis and bronchitis. It is also helpful for asthma, sinusitis and a sore throat. It calms the digestive system, soothes colic, enteritis, dysentery, vomiting.

Spasms, arthritis, rheumatism and muscular aches and pains can also benefit from it. Not only does it help with skin conditions such as acne and psoriasis, it is also used to ward off insect bites from lice and fleas.

Chemical Constituents: a-pinene, B-pinene, myrcene, a-terpinene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, y-terpinene, p-cymene, terpinolene, linaolool, terpinen-4-ol, a-terpineol.

Companion Oils: Wintergreen/Birch, Eucalyptus Radiata, Juniper and Peppermint, angelica, bergamot, cloves, geranium, lavender, and thyme.

Precautions: Cajeput oil is non-toxic and non-sensitizing, yet could irritate the skin when used in high concentration and can also easily irritate the mucus membranes.

Calamus (Acorus Calamus)

  • Color: pale yellow to yellowish brown
  • Oil Consistency: thick liquid
  • Scent: Calamus oil has a warm, spicy odor, reminiscent of a sweet forest.

Action: Antioxidant, cicatrisant, nervine, antimicrobial, insecticidal, antirheumatic, antispasmodic, nootropic, tranquilizer, sedative, cephalic, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, circulatory, antiphlogistic

Benefits, Indications: Can be used to help digestive problems, nervous complaints and headaches. It is also used to increase the appetite. Can be used to help reduce the desire for tobacco. When rubbed on the feet it may help with foot odor. It also helps with asthma, bronchitis, colic, memory loss, stroke and depression.

Chemical Constituents: Cineole,alpha-pinene, alpha-terpineol, azulene, beta-asarone, camphene, camphor, choline, delta-cadinene, elemicin, ethanol, eugenol, galangin , limonene, magnesium , menthol, terpenes, tannin, zinc

Companion Oils: Cinnamon, cedarwood, clary sage, lavender, patchouli, rosemary, tea tree, ylang-ylang

Precautions: The essential oil of calamus contains aserone, which has a high toxicity. In high doses, it is hallucinogenic. European varieties have a low concentration of aserone compared to those from India. The FDA has issued warnings about the marketing of Aserone contained in Calamus extract as a “Legal Ecstasy”, and does not permit the use of calamus in food products.

Do not use this herb internally without the supervision of a qualified expert. Use the whole herb only in external applications; never use the essential oil of calamus in extract form. Do not use at all if pregnant or lactating.

Science and Research


Camphor (Laurus Camphora)

  • Color: Camphor oil can be found on the market under three different colors or fractions. Brown and yellow camphor are considered to be more toxic because they contain a higher percentage of safrol, and should not be used for therapeutic uses. It is a colorless pale yellow liquid. Brown camphor is the the middle fraction and yellow camphor, a blue-green or yellowish liquid, is the heaviest.
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Scent: Sharp, camphoraceous, woody undertone.

Action: Analgesic, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, cardiotonic, carminative, diuretic, febrifuge, hypertensive, insecticidal, laxative, rubefacient, stimulant, sudorific, vermifuge, vulnerary

Benefits, Indications: Camphor oil can be used in the treatment of nervous depression, acne, inflammation, arthritis, muscular aches and pains, sprains, rheumatism, bronchitis, coughs, colds, fever, flu and infectious diseases. Since this oil can be toxic, it should NOT be used in aromatherapy massage, but could be used in vapor therapy to ease respiratory problems. In some cases it can also be used in compresses.

More Info: Camphor oil is a balancing oil, it can sedate the nerves and uplift apathy. It can help with feeling cold and reduces inflammation. It is used with great effect to repel insects such as flies and moths. It also has a positive effect in colds and flu, infectious diseases, bronchitis, coughs, and can assist with muscular pains, rheumatism, sprains, arthritis etc.

It is sometimes used in cases of cardiac failure, in combination with other medicines. It is also beneficial in the treatment of epilepsy, hysteria, viral diseases like whooping cough, measles, flu. food poisoning, infections of the reproductive organs, and insect bites.

Chemical Constituents: A-pinene, camphene, b-pinene, sabinene, phellandrene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, y-terpinene, p-cymene, terpinolene, furfural, camphor, linalool, bornyl acetate, terpinen-4-ol, caryophyllene, borneol, piperitone, geraniol, safrole, cinnamaldehyde, methyl cinnamate, eugenol

Companion Oils: Citrus oils, eucalyptus, lavender, rosemary, spice oils, basil, cajuput, chamomile, lavender, melissa

Precautions: Camphor oil is a powerful oil and should be used with care. It is not really used in aromatherapy as it is classed as a convulsant and neurotoxin. Overdosing can cause convulsions and vomiting and pregnant women as well as people suffering from epilepsy and asthma should not use it.

Avoid with homeopathics and while pregnant. May cause skin irritation. Brown and yellow camphor (containing safrol) are toxic and carcinogenic and ‘should not be used in therapy, either internally or externally’. White camphor does not contain safrol and is relatively non-toxic, non-irritating and non-sensitizing. It is however, an environmental hazard and marine pollutant.

Science and Research


Cananga (Cananga Odorata var. Macrophylla)

  • Color: Pale Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Base/Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Resembling ylang ylang in aroma, cananga is sometimes used as an economical substitute in fragrancing applications. Floral, sweet, slightly woody.

Action: Antiseptic, sedative, aphrodisiac, nervine

Benefits, Indications: Oily skin/hair, insect bites, high blood pressure, anxiety, nervous tension, stress, fragrancing. Cananga essential oil can be used for insect bites, skin care, anxiety, depression, and stress. Traditionally, cananga was used to treat infectious diseases, such as malaria.

Chemical Constituents: Caryophyllene, benzyl acetate, benzyl alcohol, farnesol, terpineol, borneol, geranyl acetate, safrol, linalool

Companion Oils: Cypress, geranium, cedarwood, jasmine

Precautions: Primarily non-toxic, but should be used with caution on those with sensitive skin. As with ylang ylang, be careful when first using Cananga Essential Oil as it may cause headaches for some individuals, especially if diffused in high concentration. Tisserand and Young indicate that there is generally a moderate risk of sensitization. They recommend a dermal maximum of 0.8%.

Science and Research


Caraway (Carum Carvi)

  • Color: Pale yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Watery
  • Perfumery Note: Middle to Top
  • Scent: Sweet spicy odor with a slight peppery smell.

Action: Antihistamine, antispasmodic, antiseptic, aperitif, astringent, cardiotonic, carminative, digestive, disinfectant, diuretic, emmenagogue, galactagogue, expectorant, parasiticide, stimulant, stomachic, tonic, vermifuge

Benefits, Indications: This warming essential oil helps to relieve mental strain and emotional fatigue, while aiding the digestive and urinary system and clearing the respiratory system. At the same time it also fights skin and scalp conditions. Caraway oil calms the nerves and soothes mental fatigue, while settling the stomach, nervous digestion, colic, flatulence and gastric spasms.

As an expectorant caraway oil helps clear bronchitis, bronchial asthma and coughs. It is also helpful in cases of sore throats and laryngitis and beneficial to the urinary system, helping to flush toxins out. Nursing mothers also use it to increase milk and women in general find that it helps to relieve period pains.

It is an effective tissue regenerator and useful for fighting oily skin while dispersing bruises, reducing boils and cleaning infected wounds. Furthermore, it relieves itching skin and helps to clear acne as well as scalp problems. Caraway may help with mental clarity, and colic.

Chemical Constituents: Acetaldehyde, cumuninic aldehyde, furfurol, carvone, limonene

Companion Oils: Basil, chamomile, coriander, frankincense, ginger, lavender, orange

Precautions: Although it is non-toxic and non-sensitizing, it may cause skin irritation if used in high concentration.

Science and Research


Cardamom (Elettaria Cardamomum)

  • Color: Clear
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Spicy, woody, rich, sweet

Action: Antispasmodic (neuromuscular), antibacterial, expectorant and anti-infectious. antiseptic, carminative, cephalic, digestive, diuretic, stimulant, stomachic, tonic

Benefits, Indications: Dyspepsia, loss of appetite, coughs, debility, halitosis (bad breath), mental fatigue, headaches, heartburn, nausea and sciatica. Cardamom may also alleviate menstrual problems and irregularities.

More Info: Cardamom oil is particularly helpful for the digestive system. It works as a laxative and soothes colic, wind, dyspepsia and nausea – even nausea in pregnancy. It warms the stomach and helps with heartburn. When feeling weak and mentally fatigued, cardamom oil can help with its refreshing and uplifting effect. Cardamom oils’ expectorant properties help clear coughs. It is a well-known remedy for impotence and low sexual response.

Chemical Constituents: a-pinene, b-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, a-phellandrene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, y-terpinene, p-cymene, terpinolene, linalool, linalyl acetate, terpinen-4-oil, a-terpineol, a-terpineol acetate, citronellol, nerol, geraniol, methyl eugenol and trans-nerolidol

Companion Oils: Bergamot, cedarwood, cinnamon, cistus, clove, neroli, orange, rose, ylang ylang

Precautions: Cardamon Oil may cause CNS and breathing problems in young children. They caution against using Cardamon Oil on or near the face of infants and children. Otherwise, cardamom oil is non-toxic and non-irritant as well as non-sensitizing.

Science and Research


Carrot Seed (Daucus Carota)

  • Color: Golden Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin – Medium
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium – Strong, Lingering Aroma
  • Scent: Earthy, woody, warm. It does not resemble the smell of carrots and is considered harsh or unpleasant by some.

Action: Antiseptic, carminative, cytophylactic, depurative, diuretic, emmenagogue, hepatic, stimulant, tonic, vermifuge

Benefits, Indications: PMS symptoms, dry skin, wrinkles, eczema, psoriasis, tonic to liver and gallbladder, jaundice, gout, toxin build-up, water retention.

More Info: Carrot seed oil has a detoxifying effect on the liver and helps to fight jaundice, while at the same time cleaning the digestive system and the body as a whole. It is helpful for arthritis, gout, edema, rheumatism and the accumulation of toxins in muscles and joints and also strengthens the mucus membranes in the nose, throat and lungs, thus having a beneficial effect on problems such as bronchitis and influenza.

It relieves fluid retention and can be beneficial in cases of anorexia, while it revitalizes and tones the skin, helping in cases of dermatitis, eczema and rashes.

Chemical Constituents: a-pinene, camphene, B-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, y-terpinene, limonene, B-bisabolene, geranyl acetate, Carotol

Companion Oils: bergamot, juniper, lavender, lemon, lime, cedarwood, geranium, as well as all citrus and spicy oils

Precautions: Although it is regarded to be a safe oil, it is best avoided during pregnancy.

Science and Research


Cassia (Cinnamomum Cassia)

  • Color: Golden Yellow/Brown
  • Oil Consistency: Medium
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Sharp/Strong
  • Scent: Resembling cinnamon oils in aroma, cassia is sometimes used as an economical substitute for fragrancing applications. Spicy, sweet, woodsy, earthy.

Action: Antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, carminative, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, anti-emetic

Benefits, Indications: Fragrancing. Cassia as a dried herb can be useful for digestive complaints such as flatulence, colic, dyspepsia, diarrhea and nausea. It can also be used for colds, influenza, fevers, arthritis and rheumatism. It can be used to treat uterine hemorrhaging and other internal and external hemorrhaging due to its astringent properties.

Chemical Constituents: Cinnamic aldehyde, methyl eugenol, salicylaldehyde, methylsalicylaldehyde

Companion Oils: balsam, black pepper, caraway, chamomile, coriander, frankincense, ginger, geranium, nutmeg, rosemary and some citrus oils

Precautions: Dermal irritant and mucous membrane irritant. Completely avoid cassia in skin care applications. It must also be avoided in pregnancy.

Science and Research


Catnip (Nepeta Cataria)

  • Color: Pale Yellow/Orange
  • Oil Consistency: Medium
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Herbaceous with a subdued mint aroma.

Action: Topical anesthetic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, astringent, carminative, nervine, sedative, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, stomachic, stimulant

Benefits, Indications: Apart from treating digestive problems, catnip essential oil is useful in times of stress as it has a calming effect. Nepetalactone, the prime chemical present in Nepeta cataria, is similar to that of the ingredient present is valerian root. Hence, catnip essential oil is used to treat sleeping disorders like insomnia. Owing to its antimicrobial property, catnip is also used to treat influenza and the common cold.

Catnip essential oil is used traditionally to treat hives, measles, and chicken pox. Catnip oil is beneficial for people suffering from chronic gas. It can also be used to treat infant colic as it expels gas from the intestines quickly and safely. However, always check with your doctor before self-medicating children and infants.

Chemical Constituents: Nepetalactone (60-95%), Nepetalactone, caryophyllene, epi-nepetalcatone, trans-ocimene, myrcene, cis-ocimene

Companion Oils: Grapefruit, lavender, marjoram, peppermint, orange, rosemary and spearmint, lemon, lime, mint, eucalyptus and myrrh

Precautions: May be a skin sensitizer and to use it with caution. Avoid use during pregnancy and to avoid use in babies and children.

Science and Research


Cedarwood (Cedrus Atlantica)

  • Additional Name(s): Atlas Cedarwood
  • Color: Light Golden Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Medium and oily feeling
  • Perfumery Note: Base
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium – Strong
  • Scent: Woody and sweet. Atlas Cedar Oil is a bit sharper than Virginian Cedarwood Oil. The aroma is reminiscent of artificial mothballs.

Action: Antiseborrheic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, tonic, astringent, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, insecticidal, sedative, fungicide

Benefits, Indications: Mildly antiseptic and may be effective against hair loss, tuberculosis, bronchitis, gonorrhea and skin disorders such as acne and psoriasis. It can reduce the hardening of artery walls. It is high in sesquiterpenes which can stimulate the limbic region of the brain – the center of our emotions

It may also help stimulate the pineal gland which releases melatonin, an antioxidant hormone associated with deep sleep. It is also used for bronchitis, anger/hysteria, arteriosclerosis, calming, nervous tension, and urinary infections. It is also of value in cases of arthritis and rheumatism. It may help open the pineal gland.

Chemical Constituents: a-cedrene, b-cedrene, thujopsene, other sesquiterpenes, cedrol and widdrol

Companion Oils: Bergamot, cypress, eucalyptus radiata, juniper, rosemary CT cineol.

Precautions: In high concentration, cedarwood oil may irritate the skin and it should be avoided in pregnancy.

Science and Research


Celery Seed (Apium Graveolens)

  • Color: Yellowish-Brown
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Sweet, warm, earthy spice

Action: Antioxidant, antispasmodic, carminative, stimulant, antirheumatic, antiseptic (urinary), aperitif, depurative, digestive diuretic, cholagogue, hepatic, nervine, sedative (nervous), stimulant (uterine), stomachic.

Benefits, Indications: Used for bladder and kidney complaints, menstrual problems, digestive ailments. It has been found to have a liver regenerating effect. Supports healthy digestive system and healthy liver function. Very calming and relaxing. It is also active against many bacteria including: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus albus, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhi, Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Pseudomonas solanacearum.

Chemical Constituents: limonene and selinene as the main components, also pinene, cymene, caryophyllene, pinene, santalol, and dihydrocarvone, apigenin and isoquerticin

Companion Oils: Black pepper, coriander, ginger, lavender, lovage, oakmoss, opopanax, pine, tea tree

Precautions: Although it may be used as a dietary supplement, it is advised not to use it in this manner for children under 6 years of age. Repeated use may create skin irritation or contact sensitization. Avoid while pregnant.

Science and Research


Chamomile, German (Matricaria Recutita)

  • Color: Deep Blue
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Sweet, fruity, herbaceous

Action: analgesic, anti-allergenic, antispasmodic, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, antiphlogistic, bactericidal, carminative, cicatrisant, cholagogue, emmenagogue, hepatic, digestive, sedative, stomachic, vermifuge, vasoconstrictor and vulnerary

Benefits, Indications: Insomnia, nervous tension, stress, bursitis, tendonitis, inflammation, carpal tunnel syndrome, headaches, acne, liver and gallbladder disease, parasites, ulcers. Cleanser of blood, helps increase liver function and secretion, supports the pancreas. Promotes the regeneration of skin and can be used for abscesses, burns, rashes, cuts, and dermatitis.

It is also helpful for teething pains, acne, eczema, chronic gastritis, infected nails, cystitis, inflamed joints, menopausal problems, sores, skin disorders, stress-related complaints, toothaches, ulcers and wounds.

Chemical Constituents: a-pinene, camphene, b-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, 1,8-cineole, y-terpinene, caryophyllene, and propyl angelate and butyl angelate

Companion Oils: Wintergreen/Birch, Fir, Geranium, Helichrysum, Hyssop, Lavender, Lemongrass, Marjoram, Tea Tree, Sandalwood, Spearmint, Spruce

Precautions: May cause dermatitis in some. Since it does have emmenagogue properties when used in high concentrations, it should be avoided during pregnancy.

Science and Research


Chamomile, Roman (Chamaemelum Nobile)

  • Color: Gray/Very Pale Blue
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium – Strong
  • Scent: Bright, crisp, sweet, fruity, herbaceous

Action: Analgesic, antispasmodic, antiseptic, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-infectious, antidepressant, antineuralgic, antiphlogistic, antiseptic, bactericidal, carminative, cholagogue, cicatrisant, emmenagogue, febrifuge, hepatic, sedative, nervine, digestive, tonic, sudorific, stomachic, vermifuge, vulnerary

Benefits, Indications: May help calm and relieve restlessness and tension. Its anti-infectious properties benefit cuts, scraps and bruises. Neutralizes allergies and increases the ability of the skin to regenerate. It is a cleanser of the blood and also helps the liver discharge poisons.

This oil may help with allergies, bruises, cuts, depression, insomnia, muscle tension, nerves (calming and promoting nerve health), restless legs and skin conditions such as acne, dermatitis, eczema, rashes and sensitive skin. It can effectively minimize irritability and nervousness in hyperactive children.

Companion Oils: Geranium, lavender, rose, benzoin, bergamot, orange, marjoram, lemon, jasmine, clary sage, ylang ylang

Chemical Constituents: Farnesene (unknown isomer), Chamazulene, alpha-Bisabolol, alpha-Bisabolol oxide B, alpha-Bisabolol oxide A, (E)-beta-Ocimene, delta-Cadinene, alpha-Muurolene, others

Precautions: May cause dermatitis in some. Since it does have emmenagogue properties when used in high concentrations, it should be avoided during pregnancy.

Science and Research


Champaca (Michelia Champaca)

Additional Name(s): Champak, Magnolia Champaca

  • Color: Greenish Transparent
  • Oil Consistency: Medium
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Intense intoxicating, sweet, fruity and flora, exotic with spicy, warm undertones.

Action: Antidepressant, aphrodisiac, emollient, calming, warming, antispasmodic, antiseptic, stimulant, euphoric, febrifuge

Benefits, Indications: The flower extract is used as a primary ingredient in world’s most expensive perfumes. Used for meditation, uses are similar to that of Ylang Ylang. Used to warm, calm, reduce stress, aid breathing and induce euphoria. Its seductive and beautiful fragrance produces a celestial atmosphere that soothes, relaxes and strengthens the mind after a stressful day.

Chemical Constituents: 62% Linalool, beta-caryophyllene, beta-elemene, methyl eugenol

Companion Oils: Rose, jasmine, ylang ylang, neroli, sandalwood, floral oils, citrus oils

Precautions: No known contraindications, but care should be taken as with all oils.

Chocolate Peppermint (Mentha Piperita v. Chocolat)

  • Color: Clear
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Soft and smooth peppermint aroma with a detecteble chocolate note

Action: Analgesic, antiviral, antibacterial, astringent, expectorant, insect repellent, numerous other properties

Benefits, Indications: The uses may be similar to those of traditional Peppermint Essential Oil. Little documentation is available regarding Chocolate Peppermint Essential Oil’s therapeutic properties, contraindications or constituents. Use with caution in skin care and therapeutic applications.

Chemical Constituents: The major constituents found in chocolate peppermint oil are similar to those of traditional peppermint essential oil.

Companion Oils: Cedarwood, cypress, eucalyptus, geranium, lavender, lemon, mandarin, marjoram, niaouli, pine, rosemary, spearmint

Precautions: Avoid use with children under age 2 1/2, people over the age of 60, epileptics, and pregnant and/or nursing women. Contraindications for those with cardiac fibrillation, G6PD deficiency, and some homeopathic remedies.

Science and Research (for Peppermint Oil)


Cinnamon Bark (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum)

  • Color: Slightly reddish with hint of brown
  • Oil Consistency: Slightly oily feeling
  • Perfumery Note: Base to Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium to Strong
  • Scent: Spicy, woody, resinous, camphorous; rich and penetrating

Action: Antibacterial, astringent, antioxidant, antihelminthic, anti-infectious, antiseptic, immunostimulant, aphrodisiac, insect repellent, detoxifying, anti-inflammatory, carminative, emmenagogue, analgesic, antirheumatic, expectorant, digestive, antifungal, stomachic, antidepressant, hypoglycemic, galactagogue

Benefits, Indications: Pungent, spicy and warming, cinnamon nourishes and restores the body’s own ability to produce a healing response. Applied topically in extremely low dilution, cinnamon oil assists in restoring ease and comfort to tired, fatigued or overworked bodies. This stimulating oil can be used for increasing the appetite.

Traditionally used as a spice in cooking, in ground or powdered form cinnamon is used as a tonic to increase metabolic activity. It is used as a general tonic, for excessive menstrual bleeding, heavy menstrual bleeds of menopause, gum bleeding, excessive mucous production (digestive, respiratory, urinary), diarrhea, food poisoning, digestive flu, and digestive upset while traveling abroad.

Chemical Constituents: (E)-Cinnamaldehyde, Eugenol, (E)-Cinnamyl acetate, Linalool, B-Caryophyllene, p-Cymene

Companion Oils: Spice and herb oils such as basil, clove, fennel, ginger, and marjoram; grass oils like gingergrass, vetiver and palmarosa. Can also be used with agarwood, cedarwood, davana, nagarmotha.

Precautions: Cinnamon bark oil is a mucous membrane irritant and strong skin sensitizer. Use only in very low dilution (less than 1%). Do not apply directly to delicate skin or near eyes or mucous membranes, even in dilution. Do not take cinnamon essential oil internally.

Cinnamon and its products interact with antidiabetic medication. Cinnamon Bark Oil may cause embryotoxicity and is contraindicated in pregnancy and breasfeeding.

Science and Research


Cinnamon Leaf (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum)

  • Color: Yellowish
  • Oil Consistency: Slightly oily feeling
  • Perfumery Note: Base to Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium to Strong
  • Scent: Spicy, woody, resinous, camphorous; rich and penetrating

Action: Antibacterial, astringent, antioxidant, antihelminthic, anti-infectious, antiseptic, immunostimulant, aphrodisiac, insect repellent, detoxifying, anti-inflammatory, carminative, emmenagogue, analgesic, antirheumatic, expectorant, digestive, antifungal, stomachic, antidepressant, hypoglycemic, galactagogue

Benefits, Indications: Cinnamon oil can be used for infection of the respiratory tract, rheumatism, arthritis and general pains. It calms an exhausted feeling of depression, tones the whole body and stimulates the glandular system, thus easing period pains.

Cinnamon oil’s benefit lies in its toning and calming effect on the respiratory tract, the nervous system, and in the easing of colds and influenza, as well as period pains. It also calms the digestive system and helps with rheumatism and arthritis. Although traditionally used for clearing warts, it is not recommended to be used in skin care products.

Chemical Constituents: Eugenol, Eugenyl acetate, Linalool, (E)-Cinnamyl acetate, Benzyl benzoate

Companion Oils: clove, nutmeg, ylang-ylang, grapefruit, peppermint. It acts as a fixative and can prolong the aroma of essential oils like rose, lavender, lemon, lime, orange and other citrus essential oils.

Precautions: Cinnamon leaf oil is generally considered safe. Cinnamon and its products interact with antidiabetic medication.

Science and Research


Cistus (Cistus Ladanifer)

  • Additional Names: Rock Rose, Labdanum
  • Color: Golden Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Base
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Fresh, balsamic, woody, herbaceous and slightly spicy/floral.

Action: Anti-infectious, antiviral, antibacterial, powerful antihemorrhagic agent, anti-inflammatory and is a neurotonic for the sympathetic nervous system.

Benefits, Indications: Used for mature skin and wrinkles, wounds, boils, inflamed or irritated skin, expectorant, rheumatoid arthritis, induces menstruation, urinary infection, insomnia. Used to warm, increase circulation, calm, reduce stress, uplift moods, loosen tight muscles.

More Info: When the thick labdanum oil is warm it is reputed to have the ability to change thoughts, which move emotions back from the brink of negativity, and into the light of connected control. The oil will loosen tight muscles, and improve circulation; it carries more oxygen to the organs and the brain.

When stress stretches the nervous system to the point of depression or when the emotions titter. on the brink of a hormonal overload, labdanum will interact with the adrenal glands and begin to balance hormone secretion.

Chemical Constituents: a-Pinene, Camphene, Hexen-1-ol, Trimethylcyclohexanone, Bornyl acetate

Companion Oils: Bergamot, clary sage, cypress, juniper, lavender, lavandin, patchouli, pine, sandalwood, vetiver

Precautions: Although it may be used as a dietary supplement, it is advised not to use it in this manner for children under 6 years of age.

Science and Research


Citronella (Cymbopogon Nardus)

  • Color: Clear
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Citrusy (similar to lemongrass), slightly fruity, fresh, sweet.

Action: Antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, bactericidal, insecticidal, insect repellent, deodorant, diaphoretic, antiparasitic, tonic, stimulant.

Benefits, Indications: Headaches, respiratory infections, neuralgia, fatigue and oily skin. Can be used as an antiseptic to sanitize and deodorize surfaces. It makes an excellent insect repellent when combined with cedarwood.

More Info: Citronella oil’s most useful quality is that of it being an insect repellent. It is best used in a spray, a diffuser or on a cotton ball amongst linen. It is also useful in ridding cats and dogs of fleas. Furthermore, citronella oil helps to clear the mind and has a general toning and tonic effect on the body. It is helpful with colds, flu and minor infections and also has deodorizing qualities.

Citronella oil is not only of benefit in its use as an insecticidal, but its antiseptic properties make it a great boon when wishing to clear a sickroom. It also has an excellent effect on clearing the mind. It may be used for combating excessive perspiration and for balancing oily skin, as well as fighting intestinal parasites and bringing down fever.

Chemical Constituents: citronellic acid, borneol, citronellol, geraniol, nerol, citral, citronellal, camphene, dipentene and limonene

Companion Oils: Bergamot, cedarwood, geranium, lemon, orange, pine

Precautions: Possible skin irritant; possible contact sensitization from repeated use.

Science and Research


Clary Sage (Salvia Sclarea)

  • Color: Light Golden Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin to Medium
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium – Strong
  • Scent: Bright, earthy, herbaceous, with a subtle fruity note.

Action: antidepressant, antidiabetic, anticonvulsive, antispasmodic, antiseptic, aphrodisiac, astringent, bactericidal, carminative, deodorant, digestive, emmenagogue, euphoric, hypotensive, nervine, sedative, stomachic, uterine, nervine

Benefits, Indications: Bronchitis, cholesterol, hemorrhoids, hormonal imbalance, PMS, insomnia, intestinal cramps, menstrual cramps, premenopause, weak digestion. May be used for menstrual problems, depression, headaches, dandruff, insect bites, insomnia, kidney disorders, dry skin, throat infections, ulcers, circulatory problems and whooping cough.

Also used for amenorrhea, asthma, coughing, dysmenorrhea, exhaustion, gas, labor pains, sore throat, stress. During menopause, clary sage oil can help reduce hot flushes, night sweats, palpitations, irritability, as well as headaches and dizziness.

Chemical Constituents: linalool, linalyl acetate, caryophyllene, a-terpineol, geraniol, neryl acetate, sclareol and germacrene D

Companion Oils: Bergamot, cedarwood, lemon, orange, cypress, geranium, juniper, lavender, sandalwood

Precautions: Use caution with infants and children. Clary sage oil can be very relaxing and should be avoided when consuming alcohol, since it could exaggerate the effects of alcohol,. It is a non-toxic, non-sensitizing oil, but can in large doses generate a headache and must be avoided during pregnancy.

Science and Research


Clove (Syzygium Aromaticum)

  • Color: Golden Yellow/Brown
  • Oil Consistency: Medium, Slightly Oily
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Spicy, warming yet slightly bitter, woody, reminiscent of true clove buds, but richer.

Action: Highly antimicrobial, antiseptic, analgesic, bactericidal, powerful antioxidant. It is hemostatic and is also anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antineuralgic, carminative, anti-infectious, disinfectant, insecticidal, stimulant, stomachic, uterine, tonic

Benefits, Indications: Infectious diseases, intestinal parasites, tuberculosis, respiratory infections, pain, toothache, scabies and infected wounds. Clove oil can help prevent contagious disease and may treat arthritis, bronchitis, cholera, cystitis, dental infection, amoebic dysentery, diarrhea, acne, fatigue, thyroid dysfunction, halitosis, headaches, hypertension, insect bites, nausea, neuritis, dermatitis, rheumatism, sinusitis, skin cancer, chronic skin disease, bacterial colitis, sores (speeds healing of mouth and skin sores), viral hepatitis, warts and lymphoma.

Supplemental Information: The Benefits of Clove Essential Oil

Chemical Constituents: eugenol, eugenol acetate, iso-eugenol and caryophyllene

Companion Oils: Basil, bergamot, cinnamon bark, clary sage, grapefruit, lavender, lemon, nutmeg, orange, peppermint, rose, rosemary CT cineol, ylang ylang.

Precautions: Mucous membrane and dermal irritant. Clove oil is a very potent oil and should be used with care. If it is used in a oil, lotion or cream applied to the skin, the concentration should be well below 1%. Avoid in alcoholism, in haemophilia, in prostatic cancer, with kidney and liver problems and if taking anticoagulants. It should be avoided during pregnancy.

Science and Research


Coriander (Coriandrum Sativum)

  • Color: Pale Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Medium
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Sweet, herbaceous, spicy, woody, slightly fruity.

Action: analgesic, aphrodisiac, antispasmodic, carminative, depurative, deodorant, digestive, carminative, fungicidal, lipolytic, stimulant and stomachic

Benefits, Indications: May help with arthritis, diarrhea, respiratory infections, dyspepsia, digestive spasms, poor circulation, rheumatism, gout, general infections, measles, headaches, nausea, muscular aches and pains, neuralgia, skin conditions (acne, psoriasis, dermatitis), and stress.

More Info: It may also help during convalescence and after a difficult childbirth. Because of its estrogenic content, coriander may regulate and help control pain related to menstruation. Coriander oil can be useful to refresh and to uplift the mind. It can help mental fatigue, migraine, tension and nervous weakness.

It has a warming effect on the stomach and relieve wind and cramps, while revitalizing the glandular system. It is helpful for alleviating rheumatism and arthritis pain, as well as muscle spasms and is useful with colds and flu. It also acts as a general cleanser of the body, to rid it of toxins and fluid wastes.

Chemical Constituents: borneol, linalool, cineole, cymene, terpineol, dipentene, phellandrene, pinene and terpinolene

Companion Oils: Bergamot, cinnamon, citronella, clary sage, cypress, ginger, jasmine, neroli, petitgrain, pine, sandalwood, other spice oils

. Precautions: No contraindications are known, but the oil can have a stupefying effect when used in very large doses.

Science and Research


Cornmint (Mentha Arvensis)

Notes: The menthol content of this oil is so high when distilled that the oil is usually solid. The oil is then partially dementholized or has some of the menthol removed to be liquid at room temperature. This process is usually done through freezing.

  • Color: Clear
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Highly concentrated menthol/mint aroma. Depending on the source and level of dementholization, it can have a much more potent aroma than Peppermint oil.

Action: Anesthetic, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, cytotoxic, digestive, expectorant, stimulant, stomachic.

Benefits, Indications: Used for acne, sunburn, ringworm, scabies, relieving eczema, itching, removing blackheads, sinusitis, sore throat, muscle aches and pain, hypertension, colds, flu, fevers, colic, vomiting, kidney and gall bladder tonic, discourages milk flow in nursing mothers, fainting, shock, neuralgia, mental exhaustion, depression.

More Info: Cornmint essential oil is put into practice to treat rheumatic pain, neuralgia, toothache, indigestion, laryngitis, and bronchitis. It is also an accepted treatment for tumors, earache and certain types of skin conditions and has been found to be very useful for the treatment of strains, sprains and bruises, ringworm, scabies and muscular pain.

It is considered to have a positive effect on the nervous system, as it can act as a sedative and regulator. Due to its antibacterial and antiseptic properties it can be used to treat swollen gums, mouth ulcers and to alleviate toothaches.

Chemical Constituents: Menthol, menthone, isomenthone, limonene, pinene

Companion Oils: Basil, benzoin, black pepper, cypress, eucalyptus, geranium, grapefruit, juniper, lavender, lemon, marjoram, naiouli, pine, ravensara, rosemary, tea tree

Precautions: Contraindicated in instances of cardiac fibrillation and G6PD deficiency. Caution against using it topically near the face of children and infants. Cornmint may act as a choloretic. Avoid while pregnant. May cause skin irritation.

Science and Research


Cumin (Cuminum Cyminum)

  • Color: Deep Golden Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Medium
  • Perfumery Note: Middle – Base
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium – Strong
  • Scent: Spicy, masculine, sensual, earthy.

Action: Antiseptic, antispasmodic, antitoxic, bactericidal, carminative, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue, nervine, stimulant, tonic, antiviral, immunostimulant, helps appetite and digestion and acts as a liver regulator.

Benefits, Indications: Poor circulation, dyspepsia, digestive spasms, headaches and migraines. Calming and a powerful support to the immune system. It may also help wound healing and scars. Cumin is useful as a warming oil and helps relieve muscular pains and osteoarthritis.

In the digestive system, it is a stimulant that helps with colic, dyspepsia, flatulence, bloating and dyspepsia. For the nervous system, it is a tonic and has a beneficial effect on headaches, migraine and nervous exhaustion.

Chemical Constituents: cuminic, cymene, dipentene, limonene, phellandrene and pinene

Companion Oils: Cinnamon, frankincense, jasmine, myrrh, patchouli, rose, sandalwood, ylang ylang

Precautions: Cumin has an overpowering smell and should be used very sparingly, yet it is considered non-toxic, non-irritant and non-sensitizing. It does have phototoxic qualities, so should not be used when the skin will be exposed to sunlight. People with a sensitive skin should avoid it and it should be avoided during pregnancy.

Science and Research


Cypress (Cupressus Sempervirens)

  • Color: Pale Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Fresh, herbaceous, slightly woody evergreen aroma.

Action: Improves circulation and supports the nerves and intestines. Astringent, antiseptic, antispasmodic, deodorant, diuretic, hemostatic, hepatic, styptic, sudorific, vasoconstrictor, respiratory tonic and sedative, anti-infectious, antibacterial, antimicrobial, and strengthens blood capillaries. It also acts as an insect repellent.

Benefits, Indications: Arthritis, bronchitis, circulation, cramps, hemorrhoids, insomnia, intestinal parasites, menopausal problems, menstrual pain, pancreas insufficiencies, pulmonary infections, rheumatism, spasms, tuberculosis, throat problems, varicose veins, fluid retention.

More Info: May be helpful for some cancers. May be beneficial for asthma, strengthening blood capillary walls, reducing cellulite, supporting the circulatory system and strengthening connective tissue. It may help with coughs, edema, improving energy, gallbladder ailments, bleeding gums, hemorrhaging, laryngitis, liver disorders, muscular cramps, nervous tension, nose bleeds, ovarian cysts.

It is outstanding when used in skin care, lessening scar tissue. Cypress oil has a calming and soothing effect on the irritable, angry and stressed-out person and has a valuable effect as a vasoconstrictor on varicose veins and hemorrhoids.

It is beneficial in conditions of excess fluid, such as bleeding, nosebleeds, heavy menstruation, heavy perspiration, cough and bronchitis, hemorrhages and fluid retention. The antispasmodic action is very useful for asthma, whooping cough, bronchitis, emphysema and influenza. Furthermore, cypress oil soothes muscular cramps, helps to regulate the menstrual cycle, helps to ease arthritis and rheumatic pain and it is also beneficial to oily as well as congested skin and wounds.

Chemical Constituents: a-pinene, camphene, sabinene, b-pinene, d-3carene, myrcene, a-terpinene, terpinolene, linalool, bornyl acetate, cedrol and cadinene

Companion Oils: Bergamot, clary sage, juniper, lavender, lemon, orange and sandalwood

Precautions: The oil is considered nontoxic, non-irritant and non-sensitizing, but it is best to avoid it during pregnancy. It is also best to do a skin patch test before using it in a massage blend.

Science and Research


A B C D E F G H J K L M N O P R S T V W Y

-D-

Davana (Artemisia Pallens)

  • Color: Burnt Orange
  • Oil Consistency: Thick
  • Perfumery Note: Base
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Rich, sweet, fruity, slightly woody with a hint of vanilla and a subtle camphorous note.

Action: Antidepressant, aromatic, antiseptic, antiviral, antimicrobial, antifungal, antispasmodic, decongestant, disinfectant, emmenagogue, anthelmintic, stomachic, hypotensive, antioxidant, expectorant, relaxant, vulnerary, aphrodisiac, nervine, mucolytic

Benefits, Indications: Used for wound healing (pain relieving), gout, rough and dry skin, skin infections, coughs (especially with thick mucus), inducing menstruation, menopause, regulating and balancing menstruation, ovarian and uterine cysts. Also used to ease anxiety, nervousness.

Chemical Constituents: davanone, a major sesquiterpene ketone and other essential components such as linalool, dehydro-a-linalool, terpinen-4 oil, isodavanone, nordavanone, davanafurans, methyl cinnamate, ethyl cinnamate, bicyclogermacrene, davana ether, 2-hydroxyisodavanone, and farnesol

Companion Oils: Amyris, bergamot, black pepper, cardamom, chamomile, jasmine, mandarin, neroli, orange, patchouli, rose, sandalwood, spikenard, tangerine, tuberose, vanilla, ylang ylang

Precautions: High ketone content. Avoid use with small children, elders, epileptics, pregnant and/or nursing women.

Science and Research


Dill (Anethum Graveolens)

  • Color: Clear
  • Oil Consistency: Watery
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Mild – Medium
  • Scent: Fresh, sweet, herbaceous, slightly earthy.

Action: Antispasmodic, carminative, digestive, disinfectant, galactagogue, sedative, stomachic, sudorific

Benefits, Indications: Gripe water is often made of the fresh herb and given to babies and children for colic or other digestive disorders, but dill oil should not be used for this purpose as it is too powerful. Dill oil helps to overcome the feeling of being overwhelmed and is also helpful for digestive problems in adults, easing flatulence, constipation and hiccups.

It eases the mind, calms headaches and helps with excess sweating due to nervous tension. It can also stimulate milk flow in nursing mothers, while promoting the healing of wounds

. Chemical Constituents: d-carvone, dillapiol, dhc, eugenol, limonene, terpinene and myristicin

Companion Oils: bergamot, caraway, nutmeg and citrus oils

Precautions: Dill oil is considered non-toxic, non-irritant and non-sensitizing, but should be avoided during pregnancy.

Science and Research


Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga Menziesii)

  • Color: Clear with a Tinge of Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin with an Oily Texture
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Middle
  • Scent: Crisp, fresh, green, uplifting

Action: Antitumoral, anticancerous, antifungal, antioxidant and combats respiratory infections. Sedative, antiseptic, astringent, tonic, purgative, diuretic, respiratory stimulant, antitussive, analgesic, expectorant

Benefits, Indications: Reduces cellulite, clears the sinuses, promotes mental clarity, calms and soothes frazzled nerves, facilitates an ease of communication between people, reduces aches and pains. Promotes feelings of clear airways and easy breathing. Cleansing and purifying to the skin. Promotes a positive mood and sense of focus.

More Info: In addition to its physiological uses and benefits, Douglas Fir is called the oil of “generational wisdom”. Douglas helps us tap into the experience and knowledge offered. When we struggle to connect with our parents or grandparents, or to see eye-to-eye, diffusing this oil during your meditation practice can help you release the distance or blocks you might have between you and build deeper relationships.

Chemical Constituents: beta-Pinene, alpha-Pinene, 3-Carene, Sabinene, Camphene

Companion Oils: Cistus, fir oils, lavender, lemon, marjoram, pine, rosemary, frankincense, grapefruit, vetiver, bergamot, cedar, orange

Precautions: Avoid while pregnant. May cause skin irritation. Not for internal use.

Science and Research


A B C D E F G H J K L M N O P R S T V W Y

-E-

Elemi (Canarium Luzonicum)

  • Color: Clear with a Tinge of Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Fresh, citrusy, peppery, spicy

Action: Antiseptic, antimicrobial, analgesic, expectorant, tonic, stimulant.

Benefits, Indications: Sluggish glands, scarring, upset stomach, amoebic dysentery. Widely regarded today for soothing sore muscles, protecting and rejuvenating the skin, reducing wrinkles and stimulating nerves. Its fragrance is very conducive to meditation.

Elemi can be useful with respiratory complaints such as bronchitis, dry cough and excess mucus. It is also helpful in cases of heavy perspiration, cuts, wounds and skin infections. Elemi oil is said to rejuvenate the skin. It can be used in cases of nervous exhaustion and stress-related conditions; it gives a feeling of peace.

Chemical Constituents: terpineol, elemicine, elemol, dipentene, phellandrene and limonene

Companion Oils: frankincense, lavender, rosemary, myrrh, sage

Precautions: Possible carcinogen, but research is incomplete. No special precautions are needed, but please note that elemi oil can be irritating to a sensitive skin.

Eucalyptus Citriodora (Eucalyptus Citriodora)

  • Color: Pale Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Sweet, lemony, fresh, with a woody hint.

Action: Analgesic, antiseptic, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, deodorant, expectorant, insecticidal agent.

Benefits, Indications: Asthma, athlete’s foot and other fungal infections, respiratory infections, cuts, dandruff, fevers, herpes, infectious skin conditions, laryngitis, scabs, shingles, sore throat, sores and wounds. Arthritis, bronchitis, catarrh, cold sores, colds, coughing, fever, flu, poor circulation, sinusitis.

More Info: Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil is a valuable asset when treating athlete’s foot. It is also effective against a wide range of respiratory conditions such as asthma, sinusitis, phlegm, coughs and colds, as well easing sore throats and laryngitis. Vaporized, lemon eucalyptus oil has a reviving and refreshing action that uplifts, yet is also calming to the mind.

Supplemental Information:

Chemical Constituents: citronellal, citronellol, isopulegol

Companion Oils: Basil, black pepper, cedarwood, clary sage, clove, cypress, eucalyptus, frankincense, geranium, ginger, juniper, lavender, marjoram, orange, peppermint, pine, ravensara, rosemary, sage, tea tree, thyme, vetiver, ylang ylang

Precautions: Eucalyptus oil should be used with care and people with high blood pressure and epilepsy should avoid it. Excessive use of this oil may cause headaches.

Science and Research


Eucalyptus Dives (Eucalyptus Dives var Type)

  • Additional Name(s): Broad-Leaf Peppermint, Blue Peppermint, Methol-Scented Gum, Peppermint Eucalyptus
  • Color: Colorless to Pale Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Fresh, camphorous, spicy, minty, with woody undertone.
  • Action: Anti-asthmatic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiseptic, cooling, decongestant, mucolytic

Benefits, Indications: Cooling, clear, and penetrating, Eucalyptus dives, or peppermint eucalyptus, is a natural support for deep and clear breathing. This eucalyptus essential oil possesses the numerous therapeutic benefits of the more common Eucalyptus globulus oil, with added refreshing, bright peppermint notes.

Eucalptus dives is a wonderfully aromatic oil that will add an unexpected layer of brightness and clarity to all your aromatherapy applications. The oil has been used successfully with respiratory infections, especially those affecting the lower respiratory tract: bronchitis, pneumonia, asthma.

The oil is centering, calming, causing you to take deep slow breaths and forcing the bronchioles to dilate. Eucalyptus dives is recommended for pain relief, whether from sinus headaches, any other type of headache, arthritis pain, and respiratory problems. This species has different, more specific antiseptic action than other Eucalyptus oils, is excellent for skin or topical application.

Supplemental Information:

Chemical Constituents: Pipertone, alpha-phellandrane, beta-phellndrane, para-cymene, terpineol -4-ol, alpha-terpinene, alpha-pinene, traces of 1,8 cineole (traces), limonene

Companion Oils: thyme, rosemary, marjoram, pine, spruce, fir, geranium, lavender, cedarwood, sandalwood, melissa, lemon

Precautions: Eucalyptus oil is non-toxic, non-irritant, and non-sensitizing. People with high blood pressure and epilepsy should avoid eucalyptus oil. Excessive use of this oil may cause headaches. Do not take eucalyptus essential oil internally.

Science and Research


Eucalyptus Globulus (Eucalyptus Globulus)

  • Color: Clear
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Fresh, medicinal, woody, earthy.

Action: Mucolytic, antimicrobial, antibacterial, antifungal (candida), antiviral, antiseptic, expectorant.

Benefits, Indications: Asthma, candida, coughs, diabetes, herpes, hypoglycemia, lungs, measles, headaches, respiratory infections, sinusitis, shingles, tuberculosis. May also be used for aches/pains, acne, allergies, arthritis, bronchitis, burns, cystitis, endometriosis, gonorrhea, inflammation of the ear, eye and sinus, and as a decongestant. Also for malaria, rheumatism, skin and throat infection/sores, ulcers, vaginitis and wounds. Also helpful for increasing energy.

Supplemental Information:

Chemical Constituents: Cineole, pinene, globulol, camphene, limonene, pinocarvone

Companion Oils: Geranium, juniper, lavender, lemon, lemongrass, melissa, pine, sandalwood, thyme

Precautions: Very toxic when taken orally. Eucalyptus oil should be used with care and people with high blood pressure and epilepsy should avoid it. Excessive use of this oil may cause headaches.

Science and Research


Eucalyptus Polybractea (Eucalyptus Polybractea)

  • Additional Name(s): Blue Mallee
  • Color: Clear
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Slightly camphorous, sweet, fruity.

Action: Anti-infectious, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, mucolytic, expectorant, insect repellent.

Benefits, Indications: Good for acne and cystitis. Known for its antiseptic prowess, helps you breathe easier when breathing may be challenged. Used in massage for relief for tired muscles. Creates clean, fresh air and surfaces throughout the home and overcomes bad odors.

Effective used in a bath, foot bath, sauna, vacuum cloth bag, floor washing water, add to clothes washing, and bathroom cleaning. It is also a stainless steel cleaner, stain remover, and removes sticker residue from glass, or bandaid residue from the skin, when used neat.

Supplemental Information:

Chemical Constituents: Contains up to 90% cineole, also contains beta-pinene, alpha-pinene, limonene.

Companion Oils: Fragonia, Kunzea, Lemon Myrtle, Lemon Scented Eucalyptus, Rosalina, Tea Tree, basil, cajeput, cedarwood, frankincense, ginger, juniper,lavender, lemon, marjoram, myrtle, niaouli, pine, peppermint, rosemary, and thyme.

Precautions: Eucalyptus oil should be used with care and people with high blood pressure and those with epilepsy should avoid it. Excessive use of this oil may cause headaches. Eucalyptus oil is very toxic when taken orally.

Science and Research


Eucalyptus Radiata (Eucalyptus Radiata)

  • Color: Clear
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Slightly camphorous, sweet, fruity.

Action: Anti-infectious, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, expectorant

. Benefits, Indications: Conjunctivitis, vaginitis, acne, sinusitis, bronchitis. This oil, when combined with bergamot, has been used effectively on herpes simplex. It may also help with acne, ear inflammation, endometriosis, nasal and sinus congestion, arthritis, catarrh, cold sores, colds, coughing, fever, flu, poor circulation.

Supplemental Information:

Chemical Constituents: 1,8-Cineole, a-Terpineol, (Z)-Piperitol, (+)-Limonene, Piperitone, Geraniol, a-Pinene

Companion Oils: Basil, cajeput, cedarwood, frankincense, ginger, juniper,lavender, lemon, marjoram, myrtle, niaouli, pine, peppermint, rosemary, tea tree and thyme.

Precautions: Due to its 1,8 cineole content, Eucalyptus Radiata may cause CNS and breathing problems in young children. They caution against using Eucalyptus Radiata on or near the face of children under 10. Eucalyptus oil is very toxic when taken orally. Eucalyptus should be used with care and people with high blood pressure and epilepsy should avoid it. Excessive use of this oil may cause headaches.

Science and Research


Eucalyptus Smithii (Eucalyptus Smithii)

  • Additional name(s): Gully gum
  • Color: A thin, clear to pale yellow liquid.
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Woody, camphorous, yet fresh.

Action: Antiseptic, analgesic, anti-infective, mucolytic, stimulating, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, deodorant, expectorant, insecticidal agent, calming.

Benefits, Indications: Mild and gentle and particularly useful for children’s or sensitive persons respiratory complaints. Can be used neat on the body as a preventative, in the diffuser as a room deodorizer, in massage oil for painful joints and muscles. Inhale for nighttime calm.

Eucalyptus smithii is well tolerated by the skin. It can be beneficial for acne, wounds, ulcers and can also be used as an insect repellent and for insect bites/stings. It is a stimulating oil that can help to invigorate and clear the mind. Eucalyptus smithii is a powerful decongestant that can be helpful for coughs, colds, flu and other respiratory ailments. It can be useful for headaches, neuralgia and in massage blends for the joints and muscles.

More Info: Eucalyptus Smithii is the mildest Eucalyptus oil and is the preferred choice for use with children or the elderly or when prolonged use is required.

Supplemental Information:

Chemical Constituents: 1,8-Cineol 80%, Alpha-Pinene 8%, Limonene 1%, Cymene, Linalool 0.3%

Companion Oils: Thyme, Lavender, Marjoram, Pine, Basil, Cajeput, Citronella, Spearmint, Tea Tree, Ginger, Lemon.

Precautions: Avoid if you have high blood pressure or epilepsy. Due to high cineole content this oil should be diluted to safe levels for use on children or avoided altogether. For external use only, this is considered toxic if taken internally. Dilute before use; may cause skin irritation in some individuals, so a skin test is recommended prior to use. Avoid contact with eyes.

Science and Research


A B C D E F G H J K L M N O P R S T V W Y

-F-

Fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare)

  • Color: Clear with a Faint Yellow Tinge
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top/Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium – Strong
  • Scent: Sweet, somewhat spicy, licorice-like (Anise) aroma.

Action: Aperitif, antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, depurative, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, galactagogue, laxative, stimulant, stomachic, splenic, tonic, vermifuge.

Benefits, Indications: Cystitis, fluid retention, gout, intestinal parasites, intestinal spasms, nausea, menopause, and pre-menopause problems. May be used for stimulating the cardiovascular and respiratory system, for constipation, balancing hormones, supporting pancreatic function and PMS.

It may break up fluids and toxins and cleanse the tissues. Stimulates estrogen production, facilitates birthing, increases lactation, promotes digestion, reduces dyspepsia, expels worms, is stimulating to the circulatory system.

Chemical Constituents: a-pinene, myrcene, fenchone, trans-anethole, methyl chavicol, limonene, 1,8-cineole and anisic aldehyde

Companion Oils: Basil, geranium, lavender, lemon, rosemary CT cineol, sandalwood

Precautions: Sweet fennel oil is powerful and shouldn’t be used in large doses, as it may have a narcotic effect. It should be avoided altogether in pregnancy and cases of epilepsy. It contains high amounts of trans-anethole and for that reason people with estrogen linked cancers, as well as breast-feeding mothers, pregnant women and women suffering from endometriosis should avoid it.

Dermal sensitizer, possibly carcinogenic. Avoid in instances of endometriosis, prostatic hyperplasia.

Science and Research


Fir Needle (Abies Alba)

  • Additional Name(s): Silver Fir
  • Color: Clear with a Tinge of Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin with an Oily Texture
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Fresh, woody, earthy, sweet.

Action: analgesic, antiseptic, astringent, balsamic, decongestant, deodorant, diuretic, expectorant, immuno-stimulant, rubefacient, stimulant, tonic, vasoconstrictor, vulnerary

Benefits, Indications: Arthritis, bronchitis, colds, coughs, flu, muscle aches, rheumatism, sinusitis. Its rubefacient and diuretic properties are ideal in combination with massage for such conditions as muscular aches and pains, arthritis, rheumatism, fluid retention and cellulite. Silver fir has a mild analgesic action that really seems to help ease stiff joints and muscles, whilst acting as a tonic to the whole system.

This tonic action also helps boost the emotions, bringing upliftment to downheartedness, negativity, sadness, stress and nervous exhaustion. When vaporizing the oil, the fragrance is reminiscent of a walk in a coniferous forest – uplifting, refreshing and highly rewarding.

Chemical Constituents: Santene, tricylene, a-pinene, myrcene, careen, limonene, phellandrene, terpinolene, borneol, terpinen-r-ol acetate, piperitone

Companion Oils: Other pine and fir oils, juniper berry, rosemary, patchouli, citrus oils

Precautions: Possible skin irritation depending on true plant species. Non-toxic, non-irritant (except in high concentration and to those with highly sensitive skin) and non-sensitizing. Avoid during pregnancy. Do not take silver fir essential oil internally.

Science and Research


Fleabane (Conyza Canadensis)

  • Additional Name(s): Canada Fleabane, Erigeron
  • Color: Yellow
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Scent: Herbaceous, fresh, sweet with slight musky, earthy-amber back note

Action: Antirheumatic, astringent, balsamic, emmenagogue, styptic, tonic, vermifuge. Stimulates liver and pancreas, antispasmodic, hormone-like, cardiovascular dilator, carminative. Slightly tonic, with more active diuretic and astringent properties. Anti-aging, anticholera, anti-inflammatory, digestive tonic, insecticidal, hemostatic, insect repellent.

Benefits, Indications: Used for diabetes, diarrhea, dysentery, inflamed tonsils, sore throat and kidney disease. Used to purify, repel and kill insects. Apart from its insect repelling properties, its main application is in the treatment of kidney problems, respiratory infections, and diarrhea.

Fleabane also is effective against capillary or passive hemorrhages; painful diseases of the kidneys and bladder, and in diseased conditions of the mucous membranes attended with free discharges.

Also used for choleraic discharges, sudden, gushing, and watery, attended with thirst and cramping pain; hematuria, metrorrhagia, hemoptysis, epistaxis, and hematemesis. It is an astringent that tightens the skin and can be used in skin creams and lotions to help reverse signs of aging.

It also may be beneficial for rosacea and reduction of capillary vessels on the face. Has been used to treat children with retarded puberty.

Chemical Constituents: limonene, terpineol, linalool, flavonoids,terpenes, plant acids, tannins

Companion Oils: Ambrette seed Co2, sweet basil, benzoin, cardamom, coriander, douglas fir, fennel, fir needle, galbanum, lime, lemon, mandarin, orange, petitgrain, rosewood

Precautions: Possible skin sensitization if oxidized. Store refrigerated to extend shelf life; check at 14 months and frequently thereafter for signs of oxidation. Skin contact with the plant can cause dermatitis in some people.

Science and Research


Frankincense (Boswellia Carteri)

  • Additional Name(s): Olibanum
  • Color: Light Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Base
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Mild – Medium
  • Scent: Fresh, woody, balsamic, slightly spicy and fruity.

Action: Antiseptic, astringent, carminative, cicatrisant, cytophylactic, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, sedative, tonic, uterine, vulnerary, expectorant, antitumoral, immunostimulant, antidepressant

Benefits, Indications: Asthma, depression, ulcers. May help with allergies, bites (insect and snake), bronchitis, cancer, respiratory infections, diphtheria, headaches, hemorrhaging, herpes, high blood pressure, inflammation, stress, tonsillitis, warts.

More Info: It contains sesquiterpenes, enabling it to go beyond the blood/brain barrier where it is elevating to the mind and helps to overcome stress and despair. It also increases the activity of leukocytes in defense of the body against infection. Frankincense oil soothes and calms the mind, slowing down and deepening breathing and is excellent for use when meditating.

It also helps to calm anxiety and obsessive states linked to the past. On the respiratory tract, it clears the lungs and helps with shortness of breath, asthma, bronchitis, laryngitis, coughs and colds. It can be useful to ease heavy periods, is a general tonic to the uterus and has a calming effect during labor. It is also most helpful for rheumatism and has a positive impact on the urinary tract.

Frankincense oil is said to help rejuvenate aging skin, is a skin tonic and is effective with sores, carbuncles, wounds, scars and skin inflammation.

Chemical Constituents: a-pinene, actanol, linalool, octyl acetate, bornyl acetate, incensole and incensyl acetate

Companion Oils: benzoin, sandalwood, lavender, myrrh, pine, orange, bergamot, lemon

Precautions: Frankincense oil is non-toxic and non-irritant and can be used by most people.

Science and Research


A B C D E F G H J K L M N O P R S T V W Y

-G-

Galbanum (Ferula Gummosa)

  • Color: Clear
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Fresh, earthy, balsamic, woody, spicy.

Action: Anti-infectious, stimulant, supporting to the kidneys and menstruating, analgesic, light antispasmodic

Benefits, Indications: Abscesses, boils, wounds, inflammation. May help with acne, asthma, bronchitis, chronic coughs, cramps, cuts, dyspepsia, muscular aches and pains, nervous tension, poor circulation, rheumatism, scar tissue, stress and wrinkles. It is useful as an aid for troubled or mature skin. Galbanum supports the immune, digestive, respiratory, circulatory, and other body systems.

Chemical Constituents: Pinene, cadinol, cadinene, myrcene.

Companion Oils: Benzoin, fir, geranium, ginger, lavender, oakmoss, opopanax, pine

Precautions: No special precautions when using this oil.

Science and Research


Gardenia (Gardenia Jasminoides)

  • Color: Dark Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Osmically Balanced (contains Top, Middle & Base Notes)
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Rich, sweet, floral, somewhat mimics jasmine

Action: Antidepressant, calmative, aphrodisiac, analgesic, detoxifier, aromatic, antiseptic

Benefits, Indications: Primarily used in perfumery (particularly Oriental-floral scents). Gardenia essential oil is used in aromatherapy, and as a scent in lotions, candles and other products. It is considered to have calming, antidepressant / uplifting qualities, and be good for headaches or dizziness.

A few drops of gardenia added to a bath are thought to be beneficial for insomnia. Gardenia is also considered useful in wound healing – in addition to being considered antibacterial, it has been reported hemostatic – able to assist stopping bleeding when applied (diluted)

. Chemical Constituents: Benzyl acetate, phenyl acetate, linalool, linalyl acetate, terpineol, methyl anthranilate

Companion Oils: Cinnamon leaf, citrus oils, clove bud, jasmine, neroli, rose otto, tuberose, ylang ylang

Precautions: No known contraindications, but care should be taken as with all oils.

Geranium (Pelargonium Graveolens)

  • Color: Clear
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Floral, fresh, sweet, with a fruity note.

Action: Antispasmodic, antitumoral, adrenal cortex stimulant, anti-inflammatory, astringent, hemostatic, anti-infectious, antibacterial, antifungal, revitalizes skin tissue, cicatrisant, cytophylactic, diuretic, deodorant, styptic, tonic, vermifuge, vulnerary, dilates bile ducts for liver detoxification.

Benefits, Indications: Skin conditions (dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis, vitiligo), herpes, shingles, bleeding, tumor growths, hormone imbalances. May be used for acne, burns, circulatory problems (improves blood flow), depression, gingivitis, liver problems, sterility, digestion, insomnia, menstrual problems, neuralgia (severe pain along the nerve), regenerating tissue and nerves, pancreas imbalances, ringworm, sore throats, and wounds. Also recommended for liver disorders and hepatitis.

More Info: Geranium oil can be used to help in the treatment of acne, bruises, cuts, hemorrhoids, lice, as a mosquito repellent, ringworm, ulcers, breast engorgement, edema, poor circulation, sore throat, tonsillitis, PMS, menopausal problems, stress and neuralgia. This uplifting oil has a great all-over balancing effect on the mind and this uplifting property also extends to the effect it has on the skin – where it helps to create balance between oily and dry skin.

It balances the sebum, which is the fatty secretion in the sebaceous glands of the skin that keep the skin supple. Helps cleanse oily skin and restores and enlivens pale skin. It helps to sort out emotions – where it helps to relieve feelings of stress and anxiety, and also works on the adrenal cortex, which has a balancing effect on the hormone system.

Chemical Constituents: a-pinene, myrcene, limonene, menthone, linalool, geranyl acetate, citronellol, geraniol, geranyl butyrate

Companion Oils: angelica, basil, bergamot, carrot seed, cedarwood, citronella, clary sage, grapefruit, jasmine, lavender, lime, neroli, orange, rosemary

Precautions: Geranium oil does not cause any side effects, since it is nontoxic, non-irritant and generally non-sensitizing, yet can cause sensitivity in some people and due to the fact that it balances the hormonal system, it might not be a good idea to use it during pregnancy.

Science and Research


Geranium Bourbon (Pelargonium Capitatum x Radens)

  • Color: Pale Yellow to Greenish Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Green, rose-floral, herbaceous

Action: Analgesic, antidepressant, antiseptic, cicatrisant, diuretic and insecticidal.

Benefits, Indications: Calms anxiety, lifts the spirit, assists with depression. Useful for all conditions of the woman’s reproductive system, beneficial for PMS. May assist with menopausal problems such as vaginal dryness and heavy periods. Assists with breast inflammation,

Helps clear the body of toxins which may be helpful with addictions. Stimulates the lymphatic system which keeps infection at bay. Eases neuralgia. Indicated for all problems of the nervous system such as anxiety and nervous fatigue.

The oil is a diuretic and a lymphatic stimulant which can help relieve congestion, fluid retention and swollen ankles. Useful for all skin conditions as it balances sebum. Good for oily skin and mature skin. Also helpful for treating eczema and psoriasis.

It’s an excellent remedy for burns, wounds and ulcers. Emotionally, geranium relaxes, restores and maintains stability of the emotions. It blends well with other floral oils, and, mixed with Lavender and Bergamot produces a delightful room freshener.

Chemical Constituents: Citronellol, Citronellyl formate, a-Guaiadene, Geraniol

Companion Oils: Basil, bergamot, carrot seed, jasmine, lavender, rose, citronella, fennel, lemon, lemongrass, orange, palmarosa, patchouli, peppermint, sandalwood, ylang ylang

Precautions: Dilute before use. May cause skin irritation in some individuals. Contact with eyes should be avoided.

Science and Research


Ginger (Zingiber Officinale)

  • Color: Light Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle/Base
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium – Strong
  • Scent: Warm, spicy, earthy, woody.

Action: Digestive tonic, sexual tonic, expectorant, analgesic, anti-emetic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, bactericidal, carminative, cephalic, febrifuge, laxative, rubefacient, stimulant, stomachic, sudorific, tonic.

Benefits, Indications: May be used for alcoholism, loss of appetite, arthritis, chills, respiratory infections, congestion, coughs, digestive disorders, infectious diseases, muscular aches/pains, nausea, rheumatism, sinusitis, sore throats and sprains. Ginger oil is used in the treatment of fractures, bruising, carbuncles, nausea, hangovers, travel and sea sickness, colds and flu, catarrh, sores on the skin, diarrhea, colic, cramps, chills and fever.

More Info: Ginger oil is well suited to help ease colds and flu, nausea, motion sickness, morning sickness, muscle aches and pains, as well as poor circulation and arthritic pain. Its warming qualities are good to use for feelings of loneliness and winter depression, and its energizing properties make it a good aphrodisiac.

Chemical Constituents: a-pinene, camphene, b-pinene, 1,8-cineole, linalool, borneol, y-terpineol, nerol, neral, geraniol, geranial, geranyl acetate, b-bisabolene and zingiberene

Companion Oils: All spice oils, all citrus oils, eucalyptus radiata, frankincense, geranium, myrtle, rosemary CT cineol, spearmint, bergamot, neroli, rose, sandalwood and ylang-ylang.

Precautions: Ginger oil is non-toxic and non-irritant (except when used in high concentrations) but could irritate sensitive skins and can also cause photosensitivity.

Science and Research


Goldenrod (Solidago Canadensis)

  • Color: Clear – Pale Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle – Bass
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Balsamic, fresh, citrus, peppery and spicy.

Action: Diuretic, anti-inflammatory, hepatic, mucolytic, stimulant, tonic, antihypertensive, hepatocellular stimulant, diuretic, phlebotonic.

Benefits, Indications: Arthritis, asthma, candida, colds, cough, hypertension. Helps to thin mucus secretions and relieve congested mucus membranes. It promotes urination, cleans the kidneys, reduces inflammation and prevents infection. Goldenrod oil is also used for liver congestion, hepatitis and fatty liver, circulatory conditions, and urinary tract and bladder conditions. Goldenrod essential oil supports the circulatory system including cardiovascular problems like tachycardia and arrhythmia.

Chemical Constituents: Flavonoids, including kaempferol, rhamnetin, quercetin, quercitrin, astragalin, and afzetin; also saponins, germacrene, pinene, limonene, hydoxycinnamic acid, caffeic acid, tannins

Companion Oils: Vetiver and other resins

Precautions: No special precautions when using this oil.

Science and Research


Grapefruit, Pink (Citrus x Paradisi)

  • Color: Pale Yellow – Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium – Strong
  • Scent: Citrusy, similar to lemon and reminiscent to the aroma of the grapefruit rind, but more concentrated.

Action: Antiseptic, detoxifying, diuretic, antidepressant, aperitif, disinfectant, lymphatic stimulant, tonic and anti-infectious. Like many cold-pressed citrus oils, it has unique fat-dissolving characteristics.

Benefits, Indications: Acne, cellulite, digestion, fluid retention. May help with depression, drug withdrawal, jet lag, eating disorders, fatigue, liver disorders, migraine headaches, premenstrual tension, stress. It may also have a cleansing effect on the the kidneys, lymphatic system and the vascular system.

More Info: Grapefruit has a high vitamin C content and is therefore valuable to the immune system. It helps protect against colds and flu, has a very positive effect on obesity and also has diuretic properties, helping to remove excess water from the body and is therefore also great for treating cellulite.

It has an uplifting effect on the mood and helps with stress and depression. It is used with great success to combat muscle fatigue and stiffness while stimulating the lymphatic system and thereby clearing the body of toxins. It helps to clear congested oily skin and also assists with acne, while toning the skin and tissues. Grapefruit is used in hair care to promote hair growth.

Chemical Constituents: A-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, limonene, geraniol, linalool, citronellal, decyl acetate, neryl acetate, terpinen-4-ol

Companion Oils: Basil, bergamot, cedarwood, german chamomile, cypress, frankincense, geranium, juniper, lavender, peppermint, rosemary CT cineol, rosewood, ylang ylang

Precautions: Grapefruit oil is nontoxic, non-irritant, non-sensitizing and although listed as non-phototoxic, it can irritate the skin if exposed to strong sunlight after treatment.

Science and Research


Gurjum Balsam (Dipterocarpus Jourdainii)

  • Color: Clear
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Sweet yet peppery

Action: Antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, intestinal disinfectant

Benefits, Indications: Used for inflamed skin, skin disorders, dermatitis, bronchial infections, respiratory infections, colitis, anxiety. Also used to calm the nervous system. It helps to stimulate the heart and increase blood pressure. It also finds application in the treatment of rheumatic pain and several skin problems such as diaper rash, bedsores, eczema and wounds.

Chemical Constituents: B-caryophyllene, a-gurjunene, B-gurjunene, allo-aromadendrene, guaiazulene, others

Companion Oils: Ambrette seed, amyl benzoate

Precautions: Non-toxic and non-irritating when used at low doses.

A B C D E F G H J K L M N O P R S T V W Y

-H-

Helichrysum (Helichrysum Italicum)

  • Additional Name(s): Immortelle
  • Color: Light Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Base
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium – Strong
  • Scent: Fresh, earthy, herbaceous.

Action: Anticoagulant, anti-allergenic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, astringent, diuretic, analgesic, expectorant, cytophylactic, cholagogue, nervine, anesthetic, mucolytic.

Benefits, Indications: Hematoma (swelling or blood-filled tumor), bleeding, arteriosclerosis, hypertension, congestive heart failure, cardiac arrhythmia, thrombosis, embolism, liver disorders, phlebitis, sciatica, sinus infection, skin conditions (eczema, dermatitis, psoriasis). May help hearing loss, pain (acute), respiratory conditions, scar tissue, and varicose veins. It may regenerate tissue, detoxify and stimulate liver cell function. Helichrysum oil is helpful for circulatory disorders; it can relieve the pain of rheumatism and arthritis.

It has a beneficial effect on colds, flu, bronchitis, coughs and asthma. Helichrysum oil has superb regenerating qualities and can assist in the healing of scars, acne, dermatitis, stretch marks, boils and abscesses. Folk medicine also presents this as a great boon for healing scars and fighting the ravages of aging. It aids the digestive system, reducing liver and spleen congestion.

Chemical Constituents: a-pinene, camphene, b-pinene, myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, linalool, terpinen-4-ol, neryl acetate, nerol, geraniol, eugenol, italidone and other b-diketones

Companion Oils: bergamot, chamomile, clary sage, lavender, mandarin, rosewood

Precautions: Helichrysum oil is non-toxic, non-irritant and non-sensitizing, but should not be used on children under 12 years.

Science and Research


Holy Basil (Ocimum Sanctum / Ocimum Gratissimum)

  • Additional Name(s): Tulsi
  • Color: Pale Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Strong, warming and spicy. Aromatically, Holy Basil smells like a cross between traditional basil and clove essential oils.

Action: Nervine, mucolytic, expectorant, antibacterial, antiviral, analgesic, antidiabetic, immunostimulant, antioxidant, adaptogen, euphoric.

Benefits, Indications: Lowers fever, reduces cholesterol, stress relief, infections, ulcerations, curative for insect bites, depression, fatigue, insomnia, migraines, digestive tonic, heart tonic. Recent studies indicate the high eugenol content in holy basil essential oil renders it beneficial as an analgesic.

Several other published studies show it to be effective against acne, a stress reliever, cancer metastasis inhibitor, and an effective antifungal with candida. Such documented findings have sparked a host of clinical studies.

Chemical Constituents: up to 85% Eugenole

Companion Oils: Citrus oils, jasmine, rose, ylang ylang, bergamot, clary sage, hyssop, sandalwood, cedarwood, chamomile, lavender, florals, geranium, lime, opopanax, oak moss, citronella.

Precautions: Use with caution and avoid in topical use, even if strongly diluted. Do not use while pregnant, on the elderly or on babies, or if you are epileptic.

Science and Research


Hops (Humulus Lupulus)

  • Color: Pale Yellow to Amber Red
  • Oil Consistency: Medium
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Fresh and sweet with a somewhat sharp (bitter), earthy/herbaceous aroma.

Action: Sedative, aromatic, estrogenic, nervine

Benefits, Indications: Used in aromatherapy and also found in the food industry, tobacco and pharmaceutical products, and perfumery. The scent has a direct sedative action on the nervous system and is used for restless tension-headaches, stress, and anxiety-related illness, including some sexual problems, but can aggravate depression.

Because of its estrogen content, it is an anaphrodisiac for men. Used for dermatitis, rashes, rough skin, ulcers, asthma, spasmodic cough, indigestion, nervous dyspepsia, menstrual cramps, sexual over-activity, headaches, insomnia, neuralgia. Used to calm, promote sleep and relieve pain.

Chemical Constituents: a-Caryophyllene, b-myrcene, b-caryophyllene, gamma-cadinene, delta-cadinene, a-muurolene

Companion Oils: Hyacinth, lemon, lime, nutmeg, pine, sweet orange

Precautions: Recommended to be used in very small quantities and infrequently if at all. Sensitization can occur. Avoid in depression.

Science and Research


Hyacinth (Hyacinthus Orientalis)

  • Color: Greenish Brown or Reddish
  • Oil Consistency: Thick
  • Perfumery Note: Middle / Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Sweet, green, deep, soft, floral.

Action: Antidepressant, antiseptic, hypnotic, sedative

Benefits, Indications: In aromatherapy Hyacinth is rarely used, except to create individualized fragrances. However, it has potential for its psychological effects to treat addictions, mental fatigue, nervous ailments, burnout, depression, fatigue, sorrow, apathy and stress related conditions.

It can be useful at times of grieving and loss and may help to overcome fear and anxieties at the dawn of a new chapter in life, or at the break up of a relationship. Due to its highly refreshing and floral aroma, it is widely used in the formulation of exotic perfumes, deodorants, room fresheners, scented candles, incense sticks and other aromatic products.

Hyacinth also works wonderfully on acne, pimples, blemishes and other skin ailments which make it a perfect ingredient in the production of gels, creams and ointments. It is also effective in rejuvenating the muscles of the face, shoulders and neck.

Chemical Constituents: Benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol, phenylethyl alcohol, benzyl acetate, benzoic acid, benzyl benzoate, methyl eugenol, eugenol, hudroquinone

Companion Oils: Narcissus, elemi, violet, galbanum, ylang ylang, jasmine, orange blossom, amyris, ambrette

Precautions: No known contraindications, but care should be taken as with all oils

Hyssop (Hyssopus Officinalis)

  • Color: Clear
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Fresh, earthy, fruity, woody, slightly sweet.

Action: Anticatarrhal, mucolytic, decongestant, expectorant, cleansing, depurative, antirheumatic, astringent, antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, cicatrisant, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue, febrifuge, hypertensive, nervine, sudorific, stimulant, tonic, vermifuge, vulnerary.

Benefits, Indications: Anxiety, arthritis, asthma, bruises, respiratory infections, coughs, cuts, dermatitis, dyspepsia, fatigue, nervous tension, parasites (it expels worms), rheumatism, sore throats, viral infections, wounds. Hyssop oil gives a feeling of alertness and helps with anxiety and fatigue and is therefore useful during convalescence as a tonic.

It is also effective in cases of respiratory problems and viral infections, such as colds, coughs, sore throats, influenza, bronchitis, asthma, catarrh and tonsillitis. It helps with colic, flatulence and dyspepsia, while it helps to regulate circulation and is helpful when used to raise low blood pressure.

During monthly periods, where water retention can be a problem, hyssop oil helps to balance this. In general, this oil benefits the menstrual cycle and helps with amenorrhea and leucorrhea. It has good healing properties and helps with bruises as well.

Chemical Constituents: a-pinene, camphene, b-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, limonene, pinocamphone, isopinocamphene, y-terpineol, 1,8-cineole and thujone

Companion Oils: Angelica, clary sage, orange, tangerine, melissa, rosemary, all citrus oils, fennel, geranium, myrtle, sage

Precautions: Moderately toxic and neurotoxic (toxic to the nervous system). Avoid in epilepsy, fever, pregnancy and children. Avoid in hypertension.

Science and Research


A B C D E F G H J K L M N O P R S T V W Y

-J-

Jasmine (Jasmine Officinale)

  • Color: Deep Brown with a Golden Tinge
  • Oil Consistency: Medium
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Warm, floral, exotic.

Action: Antidepressant, stimulant, antiseptic, aphrodisiac, antispasmodic, cicatrisant, expectorant, galactagogue, parturient, sedative, uterine tonic.

Benefits, Indications: Dry, oily, irritated or sensitive skin, anxiety, stress, depression. May help with eczema (when caused by emotions), frigidity, labor pains, laryngitis, lethargy, menstrual pain and problems, stress.

More Info: It is a valuable remedy in cases of severe depression and soothes the nerves, producing a feeling of confidence, optimism and euphoria, while revitalizing and restoring energy. Jasmine oil facilitates delivery in childbirth: it hastens the birth by strengthening the contractions and at the same time relieves pain. It is effective in postnatal depression and promotes the flow of breast milk.

Because of its deeply soothing and calming nature, jasmine oil helps with sexual problems such as impotence, premature ejaculation and frigidity. It has a very beneficial effect on the respiratory system, by soothing irritating coughs and helping with hoarseness and laryngitis.

It furthermore helps with muscle pain, sprains, and stiff limbs. Jasmine oil tones dry, greasy, irritated and sensitive skin, increases elasticity and is often used to assist with stretch marks and to reduce scarring.

Supplemental Information: Jasmine – Heaven Scent Aromatherapy

Chemical Constituents: There are well over 100 constituents found in jasmine oil, but the main chemical components are benzyl acetate, linalool, benzyl alcohol, indole, benzyl benzoate, cis-jasmone, geraniol, methyl anthranilate and trace amounts of p. cresol, farnesol, cis-3-hexenyl benzoate, eugenol, nerol, ceosol, benzoic acid, benzaldehyde, y-terpineol, nerolidol, isohytol, phytol etc.

Companion Oils: Bergamot, frankincense, geranium, helichrysum, lemongrass, mandarin, melissa, orange, palmarosa, rose, rosewood, sandalwood, spearmint.

Precautions: Jasmine oil is non-toxic, non-irritant and generally non-sensitizing, although some people do have an allergic reaction to the oil. Due to its emmenagogue properties it should not be used in pregnancy. Using too much of this oil could impede concentration, as it is a deeply relaxing oil.

Science and Research


Juniper (Juniperus Communis / J. Osteosperma)

  • Color: Clear
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Mild – Medium
  • Scent: Crisp, earthy, sweet, herbaceous, with almost a hidden fruity note.

Action: Antiseptic, astringent, antirheumatic, antispasmodic, carminative, depurative, diuretic, rubefacient, stimulant, stomachic, sudorific, vulnerary, tonic, digestive stimulant, depurative, detoxifier.

Benefits, Indications: Acne, dermatitis, eczema, gout, depression fatigue, liver problems, sore muscles, rheumatism, ulcers, urinary infections, fluid retention, wounds. May work as a detoxifier and a cleanser, as well as being beneficial to the skin. It may assist with nerve regeneration.

More Info: Juniper oil can help calm the nerves, relieves anxiety, nervous tension and mental exhaustion. It is helpful when the prostate gland is enlarged and is used to help with the inability to pass urine, in cases of cystitis and kidney stones. It is also helpful for cellulite and fluid retention.

Juniper oil generally helps with the digestive system, particularly in cases of obesity, over-indulgence of food and premenstrual bloating. For the liver, it has a tonic effect and also helps regulate the menstrual cycle and eases painful period pains. It assists with the elimination of uric acid and therefore relieves pain in cases of gout, rheumatism and arthritis.

Apart from this, juniper oil is also very effective for acne, eczema, oily skin, weeping eczema, psoriasis and dandruff and alleviates inflammation.

Chemical Constituents: a-pinene, camphene, b-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, a-phellandrene, a-terpinene, y-terpinene, 1,4-cineole, b-phellandrene, p-cymene, terpinen-4-ol, bornyl acetate, cayophyllene and trace amounts of limonene, camphor, linalool, linalyl acetate, borneol, neroli

Companion Oils: Bergamot, all citrus oils, cypress, geranium, lavender, tea tree, rosemary CT cineol, cedarwood, lavandin, vetiver, clary sage, lemongrass.

Precautions: It is considered nontoxic but since it can stimulate the uterine muscle it should not be used during pregnancy, nor by people with kidney problems. It is non-sensitizing, but some people do have a reaction to it, and it is generally wise to us this oil in moderation.

Science and Research


A B C D E F G H J K L M N O P R S T V W Y

-K-

Kanuka (Leptospermum Ericoides)

  • Additional Name(s): White Tea Tree
  • Color: Pale Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Sweet, herbaceous, earthy, similar to the aroma of Manuka.

Action: antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antiviral

Benefits, Indications: Acne, athlete’s foot, candida, chicken pox, cold sores, colds, corns, cuts, flu, insect bites, itching, migraine, oily skin, ringworm, sinusitis, sores, spots, urethritis, warts, whooping cough. Kanuka was used originally by the Maori people of New Zealand for pain and inflammation relief, skin diseases, and to promote calmness and sleep.

Kanuka essential oil is antifungal, anti-inflammatory and has a pleasant perfume. For the relief of swelling and muscular pain, skin problems, for sprains, strains and sports injuries. Helps clear inflammation.

Chemical Constituents: alpha-Pinene, viridiflorol, limonene, cineol

Companion Oils: lavender, clary sage, lemon, marjoram, nutmeg, pine, rosemary

Precautions: Kanuka is a strong oil and should be diluted in a carrier oil. Use at very low strength for children as it may irritate their skin. Not recommended for use during pregnancy.

Science and Research


A B C D E F G H J K L M N O P R S T V W Y

-L-

Lavandin (Lavandula x Hybrida)

  • Color: Pale Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top/Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Fresh, sweet, floral, more herbaceous than lavender with a slightly camphorous quality.

Action: Antibacterial, antifungal, strong antiseptic (related actions to Lavender), antidepressant, analgesic cicatrisant, expectorant, nervine, vulnerary.

Benefits, Indications: There is not a long history of the therapeutic use of lavandin. Lavandin is best used as an antiseptic. Its greater penetrating qualities make it well suited to help with respiratory, circulatory and muscular conditions. Lavandin oil can be useful in cases of muscle stiffness and aches and pains. It eases the lungs and helps with coughs, colds and flu.

It has similar qualities to that of true Lavender, but since it has a sharper smell, it is especially useful for treating muscular aches and pains, as well as for circulatory and respiratory problems.

Chemical Constituents: lavandulol, linalool, linalyl acetate, camphor, cineole, caryophyllene, camphene, dipentene, limonene, ocimene and terpinene

Companion Oils: Bergamot, cinnamon, citronella, clove, cypress, clary sage, geranium, lime, patchouli, pine, rosemary CT cineol, thyme

Precautions: Do not use for burns. Lavandin oil is nontoxic, non-irritant and non-sensitizing.

Science and Research


Lavender (Lavandula Angustifolia)

  • Color: Clear with a Tinge of Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top/Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Fresh, sweet, floral, herbaceous, slightly fruity.

Action: Antiseptic, analgesic, antitumoral, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, sedative, antidepressant, antirheumatic, antispasmodic, antiviral, bactericide, carminative, cholagogue, cicatrisant, cordial, cytophylactic, decongestant, deodorant, diuretic, emmenagogue, hypotensive, nervine, rubefacient, sudorific, vulnerary.

Benefits, Indications: Beneficial for healing burns, cleansing cuts and wounds. Ideal for skin care since it prevents the build up of excess sebum, a skin oil that bacteria feed on. Lavender has also been clinically evaluated for its relaxing effects. Sunburns (including lips), dandruff, hair loss, allergies, convulsions, herpes, headaches, dyspepsia, insomnia, high blood pressure, menopausal conditions, phlebitis, tumors, premenstrual conditions, scarring (minimizes), skin conditions (acne, dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis, rashes), stretch marks.

More Info: It may be used for bruises and skin irritations. Lavender is a universal oil with many different applications. It may also help arthritis, asthma, bronchitis, depression, earaches, heart palpitations, high blood pressure, hives (urticaria), insect bites, laryngitis, nervous tension, respiratory infections, rheumatism and throat infections. Lavender oil relieves pain when used for rheumatism, arthritis, lumbago and muscular aches and pains, especially those associated with sport.

It is also very beneficial for problems such as colds, halitosis, and whooping cough and helps the digestive system deal with colic, nausea, vomiting and flatulence. Lavender oil is one of the few essentials oils that can be used neat on the skin, and this is especially useful when treating a minor burn or wound.

Supplemental Information: The Benefits of Lavender Essential Oil

Chemical Constituents: a-pinene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, cis-ocimene, trans-ocimene, 3-octanone, camphor, linalool, linalyl acetate, caryophyllene, terpinen-4-ol and lavendulyl acetate Companion Oils: Most oils, especially citrus oils, chamomile, clary sage, geranium, cedarwood, pine, nutmeg

Precautions: Although lavender oil is considered one of the safest essential oils, you should discontinue use if you have any allergic reactions.

Science and Research


Ledum (Ledum Groenlandicum)

  • Additional Name(s): Labrador Tea
  • Color: Clear – Pale Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Peppery, smoky, herbaceous, and slightly-sweet.

Action: Anti-inflammatory, antitumoral, antibacterial, hepatoprotectant, diuretic, decongestant, antianxiety, antidepressant, anti-infectious, antinausea, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral, calming, carminative, digestive, immunostimulant, stomachic

Benefits, Indications: Liver dysfunctions, hepatitis, cirrhosis, fatty liver, obesity, laryngitis, bronchitis, allergies, influenza, edema, thyroid regulation. Can be used for all types of skin problems, for coughs, hoarseness, stomach discomfort, prostate infection, congested prostate, insomnia, allergies.

More Info: Ledum promotes healthy thyroid function and relieves symptoms associated with thyroid imbalance. Pure Ledum essential oil can be used to balance either an over active (hyperthyroid) condition or an under functioning or (hypothyroid) condition. Ledum oil has a natural affinity for the immune system and known to effectively stimulate immune function.

Its calming properties are useful for relieving stomach upset and nervous dyspepsia and is especially beneficial for relieving cold and flu symptoms such as nausea, aches and pains, congestion, sore throat and cough. It is used in cases of liver toxicity originating from a circulation disorder, mild liver insufficiencies, after-effect from viral hepatitis, enteritis, flatulence.

It is also used to treat toxemic nephritis, microbial nephritis, renal calculi, and infectious prostatitis. In addition, ledum is indicated in cases of insomnia, nervousness, solar plexus spasms.

Chemical Constituents: sabinene, terpinen-4-ol, b-selinene, myrtenal, linalool, cineole, pinene, carene, camphene

Companion Oils: Frankincense, goldenrod, wintergreen/birch, lemon, sage, cedarwood, and other woodsy aromas, grapefruit, petitgrain and fennel

Precautions: If using topically, always dilute.

Science and Research


Lemon (Citrus Limon)

  • Color: Pale Yellow to Deep Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Aroma is similar to fresh lemon rinds except richer and more concentrated.

Action: Anti-infectious, antibacterial (spores), antiseptic, antiviral, disinfectant. anti-anemic, antimicrobial, antirheumatic, antisclerotic, bactericidal, carminative, cicatrisant, depurative, diaphoretic, diuretic, febrifuge, hemostatic, hypotensive, insecticidal, rubefacient, tonic, vermifuge.

Benefits, Indications: Anemia, asthma, herpes, warts, shingles, bleeding, malaria, parasites, rheumatism, throat infections, ureter infections, varicose veins. Lemon improves microcirculation, promotes white blood cell formation and improves immune function. May be beneficial for anxiety, digestive problems, respiratory infections, sore throats.

It helps promote leukocyte formation, improves memory, strengthens nails, cleans the skin and promotes a sense of well-being.

More Info: Research has shown lemon to have antidepressant effects. It serves as an effective insect repellent and works well in removing gum, wood stain, oil and grease spots. Lemon oil can be very beneficial to the circulatory system and aids with blood flow, reducing blood pressure and helping with nosebleeds.

It can help bring down fever, helps relieve throat infections, bronchitis, asthma and flu. It boosts the immune system and cleanses the body, improves the functions of the digestive system, and it is helpful with constipation, dyspepsia and cellulite. Lemon oil soothes and relieves headaches and migraines and is helpful for rheumatism and arthritis.

It is also used for clearing acne, cleaning greasy skin and hair, as well as removing dead skin cells, easing painful cold sores, mouth ulcers, herpes and insect bites.

Chemical Constituents: a-pinene, camphene, b-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, a-terpinene, linalool, b-bisabolene, limonene, trans-a-bergamotene, nerol and neral

Companion Oils: German chamomile, eucalyptus radiata, fennel, frankincense, geranium, juniper, peppermint, sandalwood, ylang ylang

Precautions: nontoxic, but can cause skin irritation and sensitizing in some individuals. Since it is a photo-toxic oil, it should not be used (even in low dilution) before being exposed to the sun.

Science and Research


Lemon Myrtle (Backhousia Citriodora)

  • Color: Pale Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Extremely lemony and crisp. More “lemony” than true Lemon (Citrus limonum) oil.

Action: Antibacterial, germicidal, sedative, antidepressant, antiseptic, antifungal, antiviral, disinfectant

Benefits, Indications: Uplifting, relaxant, mental stimulant, hypotensive, antidepressant, calmative, remove bad room smells, calm noisy children.

More Info: Lemon Myrtle is a much more effective germ killer than the more familiar Tea Tree. Anecdotal evidence from Australian aromatherapists, who have tested Lemon Myrtle indicate that it can be effective for relieving chest congestion whether diffused or in a massage blend.

It also seems useful for relaxation, uplifting emotions, and soothing sleep. It has been used to treat allergies, colds, sore throats, gastric disturbances and infections. It has further been used to alleviate headaches, fevers and muscle cramps and spasms.

Chemical Constituents: Citral (Neral (alpha citral) and Geranial (beta-citral)) comprises 90-98% of the oil. Other minor constituents are myrcene, methylheptenone, linalool, isocitrals, unusual dehydro-1,8-cineole.

Companion Oils: Atlas, benzoin, bergamot, elemi, eucalyptus, black pepper, cedarwood, frankincense, myrrh, neroli, rose, hyssop, jasmine, lavender, lemon, lemongrass, clary sage, coriander, melissa, rosewood, ylang ylang

Precautions: Due to the high citral content of the essential oil, there is a risk of sensitization when applied topically, so always use diluted, and take care with sensitive, diseased or damaged skin.

Science and Research


Lemon Tea Tree (Leptospermum Petersonii)

  • Color: Clear with a Tinge of Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium – Strong
  • Scent: Lemony, citrusy, bitter.

Action: Antibacterial, anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, Antiviral, cictrisant, diaphoretic, expectorant, fungicidal, parasiticide, immunostimulant, vulnerary, carminative, sedative.

Benefits, Indications: Lemon Tea Tree has all of the medicinal properties associated with Tea Tree essential oil, yet has additional broad-range antifungal abilities. For more information on the therapeutic properties, see Tea Tree Oil. Lemon Tea Tree is considered the ultimate natural mosquito repellent, and is effective on its own in a carrier oil.

It is also considered one of the best essential oils for eliminating odors. It may be diluted with water in a spray bottle and applied to the desired area. A few drops may also be added to any cleaning solution for the same effect.

Chemical Constituents: Contains upto 70% Citral, containing: geranial, neral, cis citral

Companion Oils: Cypress, eucalyptus, lemon myrtle, niaouli, rosalina, sandalwood, cajeput, clove bud, geranium, ginger, juniper, lavender, lemon, mandarin, orange, peppermint, pine, rosemary, thyme, tea tree

Precautions: Contains citral, a strong sensitizer. Avoid use on broken skin. Avoid use during pregnancy.

Science and Research


Lemon Verbena (Lippia Citriodora)

  • Color: Yellowish-green
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: It has a pleasant aroma that is both citrusy and slightly green and floral.

Action: Antiseptic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, digestive, emollient, febrifuge, hepatic, insecticidal, sedative, stomachic,, antibacterial, antioxidant, antiviral, tonic.

Benefits, Indications: In the digestive system, lemon verbena oil helps with cramps, dyspepsia and liver congestion and is helpful to restore the liver after a binge and when suffering from a hangover. The stimulant action on the digestive system helps to digest fats and the excellent action on the liver helps in cases of cirrhosis, as well as alcoholism.

It soothes the respiratory tract and calms heart palpitations. The calming action of the oil helps in sexual matters. Lemon verbena oil helps to banish depression and relaxes as well as refreshes the body and mind, while uplifting the spirits and promoting stress control.

This essential oil is great to banish blues and depression while boosting liver function and helping the digestive and respiratory system and at the same time softening the skin and reducing puffiness.

Chemical Constituents: borneol, geraniol, linalool, nerol, citral, dipentene, limonene, myrcene

Companion Oils: lemon, elemi, neroli and palmarosa

Precautions: There is not much safety data regarding lemon verbena oil, but since it has a high citral level it may cause sensitization and is phototoxic.

Science and Research


Lemongrass (Cymbopogon Flexuosus)

  • Color: Pale Yellow to Vivid Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Fresh, lemony, earthy.

Action: Analgesic, antidepressant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antiseptic, astringent, bactericidal, carminative, deodorant, diuretic, febrifuge, fungicidal, galactagogue, insecticidal, nervine, tonic.

Benefits, Indications: Bladder infection, digestive disturbances, parasites, torn ligaments, edema, kidney disorders, varicose veins. May help improve circulation, and eyesight as well as combat headaches, infections, respiratory problems, sore throats and fluid retention. It aids in tissue regeneration.

Tones and helps regenerate connective tissues and ligaments, dilates blood vessels, strengthens vascular walls, promotes lymph flow. Lemongrass oil revitalizes the body and relieves the symptoms of jetlag, and helps to combat nervous exhaustion and stress-related conditions.

It is a great overall tonic for the body and it boosts the parasympathetic nervous system, which is a boon when recovering from illness, as it also stimulates glandular secretions. It is useful with fever and helps prevent spreading of infectious diseases. It is helpful with colitis, dyspepsia and gastroenteritis.

Chemical Constituents: myrcene, citronellal, geranyl acetate, nerol, geraniol, neral and traces of limonene and citral

Companion Oils: Basil, cedarwood, jasmine, coriander, eucalyptus radiata, geranium, lavender, tea tree, rosemary CT cineol

Precautions: Lemongrass oil can irritate a sensitive skin, so care should be taken. It should be avoided in pregnancy, due to it being a possible skin irritant.

Science and Research


Lime (Citrus Aurantifolia)

  • Color: Light Green With a Hint of Orange/Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Fresh, citrusy, sweet.

Action: Antiseptic, antiviral, astringent, aperitif, bactericidal, disinfectant, febrifuge, hemostatic, restorative, tonic

Benefits, Indications: Acne, asthma, chilblains, colds, dull skin, flu, varicose veins. Lime oil is useful to cool fevers associated with colds, sore throats and flu and aids the immune system while easing coughs, bronchitis and sinusitis. Lime oil can stimulate and refresh a tired mind and helps with depression.

It can be helpful for arthritis, rheumatism and poor circulation, as well as for obesity and cellulite. It has an astringent and toning action to clear oily skin and acne, and also helps with herpes, insect bites and cuts.

Chemical Constituents: a-pinene, B-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, limonene, y-terpinene, terpinolene, octanal, nonanal, tetradecanal, pentadecanal, trans-a-bergaptene, caryophyllene, B-bisabolene, geranial, neryl acetate, geranyl acetate, a-terpineo, linalool

Companion Oils: Neroli, lavender, clary sage, ylang-ylang

Precautions: Nontoxic, non-irritant and non-sensitizing if the oil is obtained by steam extraction, yet the oil obtained from cold expression can cause photosensitivity in strong sunshine and can irritate the skin.

Science and Research


Linden Blossom (Tilia Vulgaris)

  • Additional Name(s): Lime Blossom
  • Color: Deep Coffee Brown
  • Oil Consistency: Medium
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium – Strong
  • Scent: Warm, floral, honey-like, with a slight citrus-like note.

Action: Antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, sedative, expectorant, antioxidant

Benefits, Indications: Headache, insomnia, migraine, stress. Linden blossom is good for the skin and is often used as an ingredient in facial creams and lotions. It is extensively used in fragrances, cosmetics, and massage oils. It is believed to rejuvenate the skin, giving you a radiant and youthful appearance. It is also used for hair care and is a chief ingredient in many shampoos and hair care products.

Deeply relaxing, Linden Blossom has an uplifting, rejuvenating and stabilizing effect. The stabilizing action of Tilia vulgaris helps dispel negative emotions and thoughts, helping to strengthen relationships. Linden tea is a great “anti-cold” therapy when you get sick, and has also antiseptic and anti-inflammatory properties.

Chemical Constituents: Farnesol

Companion Oils: Jasmine, rose, benzoin, ylang-ylang, neroli, clary sage, lavender, cassia, mandarin, sandalwood, helichrysum, hyacinth

Precautions: Linden Blossom should not be used over a long period of time. May cause allergy to a sensitive skin.

Lovage (Levisticum Officinale)

  • Additional Name(s): Angelica Levisticum, Common Lovage, Ligusticum Levisticum, Smellage, Maggi Herb, Garden Lovage, Old English Lovage
  • Color: Pale yellow (leaves and stalks) – Amber to Olive Brown (roots)
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Spicy, warm, sweet and floral (leaves/stalks), earthy celery-like (roots).

Action: Diuretic, antiseptic, expectorant, disinfectant, detoxifying, carminative, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, stomachic

Benefits, Indications: Both the herb and the oil have an affinity with the digestive system. Lovage has been used as a natural herbal remedy to relieve abdominal pain due to gastrointestinal gas, to reduce flatulence, and as a treatment for colic in children.

It is is a natural blood cleanser, and has been used as a natural treatment for skin eruptions, gout, and rheumatism. Lovage has been traditionally used as a treatment for malaria, pleurisy, boils, migraine headaches and aching throats. As an expectorant, it is believed to help loosen and expel phlegm, and is considered to be a useful medicinal herb for the treatment of respiratory problems.

Chemical Constituents: Butylidene, dihydrobutylidene, butylphthalides, ligostilides, terpenoids, coumarins, furocoumarins

Companion Oils: Bay, galbanum, lavender, oakmoss, opopanax, rose, spice oils

Precautions: Avoid while pregnant.

Science and Research


A B C D E F G H J K L M N O P R S T V W Y

-M-

Mandarin (Citrus Reticulata)

  • Color: Greenish Orange
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Medium – Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Very sweet, citrusy, fruity.

Action: Light antispasmodic, digestive tonic, antiseptic, antifungal, gallbladder stimulant.

Benefits, Indications: May help acne, digestive problems, fluid retention, insomnia, intestinal problems, skin problems (congested and oily skin, scars, spots), tones the skin, diminishes stretch marks (when combined with either jasmine, lavender, sandalwood and/or frankincense), calms nervous tension and restlessness. Recommended for children and pregnant women because it is very gentle.

More Info: Mandarin essential oil is adaptable and can be used to treat a wide range of physical and emotional conditions. A few drops added to a carrier can be used in massage to treat cellulite, stretch marks and fluid retention effectively.

To increase the oil’s effectiveness, add other essential oils that are effective with these conditions such as juniper berry and cypress since they create an effective synergy together. Mandarin oil has a mild antispasmodic effect which makes it useful for relaxing muscle spasms, and when massaged on the abdomen helps to relieve dyspepsia and gastritis.

Its cheering, uplifting and relaxing aroma is ideal for treating negative emotional conditions such as anxiety, nervous tension, stress, irritability, restlessness and tantrums – with both grown-ups and children!

Chemical Constituents: Limonene, methyl methylanthranilate, geraniol, citral, citronellal

Companion Oils: Basil, black pepper, roman chamomile, cinnamon, clary sage, clove, frankincense, geranium, grapefruit, jasmine, juniper, lemon, myrrh, neroli, nutmeg, palmarosa, patchouli, petitgrain, rose, sandalwood, ylang ylang

Precautions: nontoxic and non-irritant. Mildly photo-sensitizing. Do not take mandarin essential oil internally.

Science and Research


Manuka (Leptospermum Scoparium)

  • Additional Name(s): New Zealand Tea Tree
  • Color: Clear
  • Oil Consistency: Medium and Slightly Oily
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Woody, earthy, balsamic. It is richer and warmer than common Tea Tree.

Action: Similar to common tea tree. Antibacterial, antidandruff, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antihistamine, anti-allergenic, cicatrisant, cytophylactic, deodorant.

Benefits, Indications: Used for abscess, acne, athlete’s foot, blisters, burns, cold sores, dandruff, herpes, insect bites, oily skin, rashes, diaper rash, warts, infected wounds, asthma, bronchitis, catarrh, coughs, sinusitis, tuberculosis, whooping cough, vaginitis, cystitis.

Chemical Constituents: Leptospermone, (E)-calamenene, a-pinene, cadina-3,5-diene, delta-cadinene, a-copaene, favesone, cadina-1, 4-diene, b-Selinene, a-selinene, isoleptospermone

Companion Oils: Basil, bergamot, black pepper, chamomile, clary sage, cypress, eucalyptus, geranium, grapefruit, lavender, lemon, litsea cubeba, marjoram, orange, patchouli, peppermint, petitgrain, pine, ravensara, rosemary, sage, sandalwood, tea tree, thyme

Precautions: No known contraindications, but care should be taken as with all oils.

Science and Research


Marjoram (Origanum Majorana)

  • Color: Clear with a Tinge of Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Herbaceous, sweet, woody, with a campherous, medicinal aroma.

Action: Analgesic, antispasmodic, anaphrodisiac, antiseptic, antiviral, bactericidal, carminative, cephalic, cordial, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, fungicidal, hypotensive, laxative, nervine, sedative, stomachic, vasodilator, vulnerary.

Benefits, Indications: Aches, arthritis, insomnia, migraines, neuralgia, rheumatism, sprains, anxiety, nervous tension, bruises, burns, sores, cuts, circulatory disorders, respiratory infections, fungal and viral infections, menstrual problems, ringworm, shingles, shock, spasms, sunburn, fluid retention. May be relaxing and calming to the muscles that constrict and sometimes contribute to headaches.

More Info: Marjoram oil has a warming action and calms emotions, relieves anxiety as well as stress and helps to calms hyperactive people. It has good muscle relaxant properties and the pain killing properties are useful for rheumatic pains as well as sprains, strains and spasms, as well as swollen joints and painful muscles.

It soothes the digestive system and helps with cramps, dyspepsia, constipation and flatulence and has a beneficial action on colds, sinusitis, bronchitis and asthma. As a general relaxant, marjoram oil is used for headaches, migraines and insomnia and although it can diminish sexual desire, it is great for treating delayed, painful or scanty monthly periods as well as menstrual cramps.

Chemical Constituents: sabinene, a-terpinene, y-terpinene, p-cymene, terpinolene, linalool, cis-sabinene hydrate, linalyl acetate, terpinen-4-ol and y-terpineol

Companion Oils: Bergamot, cedarwood, german chamomile, cypress, lavender, nutmeg, orange, rosemary CT cineol, rosewood, ylang ylang

Precautions: Marjoram oil is nontoxic, non-irritant and non-sensitizing but should not be used during pregnancy.

Science and Research


May Chang (Litsea Cubeba)

  • Color: Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Medium
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Sharp, with a complex lemony aroma.

Action: antiseptic, antifungal, antiviral, stimulant, antidepressant, astringent, deodorant, nervine, tonic, antibiotic, decongestant, anti-inflammatory, bactericidal, bronchodilator, calmative, digestive tonic, disinfectant, emollient, galactagogue, hypotensive, insecticidal, regenerative, sedative, stimulant and vulnerary.

Benefits, Indications: It is a deodorizer and disinfectant, as well as having antiseptic and antiviral properties making it great for use when cleaning or when making a blend to help keep the air clean and fresh. This essential oil has been used as a deodorant as well as to help reduce excess perspiration. It has been reported to have antispasmodic properties for the bronchia that may help those suffering from asthma.

This oil is helpful for general skin cleansing due to its antiseptic properties. It is also beneficial to the aromatherapy treatment of oily, acne infected skin areas. May Chang functions as a bronchial dilator and is therefore helpful for relief of symptoms associated with bronchitis and asthma. Research in China has focused upon the oil’s ability to regulate cardiac arrythmia. This oil is helpful in treatment of fatigue, lethargy, insomnia, anxiety and depression.

Chemical Constituents: Citral, limonene, miycrene, methyl hepetone, linalool, linlyl acetate

Companion Oils: Basil, bay, black pepper, cardamom, cedarwood, chamomile, clary sage, coriander, cypress, eucalyptus, frankincense, geranium, ginger, grapefruit, juniper, marjoram, orange, palmarosa, patchouli, petitgrain, rosemary, sandalwood, tea tree, thyme, vetiver, ylang ylang

Precautions: May cause skin irritation. Avoid with glaucoma. May have a homeone-like action. Avoid in prostatic hyperplasia. Avoid with sensitive, diseased or damaged skin. Do not administer to children.

Science and Research


Melissa (Melissa Officinalis)

  • Color: Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top/Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Fresh, lemony, herbaceous.

Action: antidepressant, antispasmodic, bactericidal, carminative, cordial, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, febrifuge, hypotensive, nervine, sedative, stomachic, sudorific, tonic.

Benefits, Indications: Allergies, anxiety, asthma, bronchitis, chronic coughs, respiratory infections, cold-sore blisters, dyspepsia, depression, dysentery, eczema, fevers, hypertension, dyspepsia, insect bites, insomnia, menstrual problems, migraine, nausea, nervous tension, palpitations, throat infections, vertigo.

Melissa oil calms the nerves and has excellent qualities in fighting depression. Its sedative effect is well documented. It helps in cases of hysteria and panic and helps to slows the heartbeat, eases high blood pressure and is a tonic to the heart while regulating the menstrual cycle, also helping with period pains.

It can settle the digestive system, helps with nausea, flatulence, vomiting, dyspepsia and dysentery and has a cooling effect on fevers. It can help with headaches and migraines associated with colds. When treatment is started in the early stages, it can also be used as a topical treatment for cold sores (herpes simplex).

Chemical Constituents: trans-ocimene, cis-ocimene, 3-octanone, methyl hepenone, cis-3-hexenol, 3-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol, copaene, citronellal, linalool, b-bourbonene, caryophyllene, a-humulene, neral, germacrene-D, geranial, geranyl acetate, d-cadinene, y-cadinene, nerol, geraniol

Companion Oils: Basil, roman chamomile, rose, geranium, frankincense, lavender, ylang-ylang, other floral oils and citrus oils

Precautions: Melissa oil is nontoxic but could cause sensitization and irritation and should always be used in low dilutions. For this reason it should be avoided during pregnancy and by people with a very sensitive skin.

Science and Research


Mimosa (Acacia Dealbata)

  • Color: Amber
  • Oil Consistency: Thick
  • Perfumery Note: Middle to Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Woody, floral, somewhat green.

Action: Antidepressant, aphrodisiac, antistress, uplifting.

Benefits, Indications: Helps with sensitive skin or skin problems due to stress or nervous tension. Largely in soaps, due to its good fixative properties. Also in high-class perfumes, especially colognes, floral and oriental. Good for anxiety, nervous tension, over-sensitivity, stress.

It has an uplifting effect upon the body and mind, it has the ability to energize and relax at the same time. Lifts the spirits, helps with worries and fears, lifts depression, it is calming and relaxing oil.

Chemical Constituents: Palmic aldehyde, anisic acid, enanthic acid, acetic acid, phenols

Companion Oils: Bergamot, cedarwood, lemon, cassia, coriander, citronella, clary sage, cypress, geranium, jasmine, lavender, lavendin, mandarin, neroli, oakmoss, petitgrain, rose, marjoram, violet, ylang ylang, citronella, pine

Precautions: Tested in low doses nontoxic; may produce dermatitis in hypersensitive individuals.

Science and Research


Mountain Savory (Sautureje Montana)

  • Additional Name(s): Winter Savory
  • Color: Clear to light yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: sharp, medicinal, herbaceous aroma.

Action: Strongly anti-infectious, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, carminative, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, immunostimulant, general tonic, antioxidant, stimulant.

Benefits, Indications: Acute pain, sluggish nervous and circulatory systems. Due to its high phenol content, mountain savory is a very strong antiseptic and has been used to hasten the formation of scabs and to help with abscesses, burns and cuts. It is also known to stimulate the adrenal gland.

Recent research suggests that the extract may have anti-HIV activity. Mountain savory rates very highly as an antioxidant. Antioxidants are said to reduce the risk of age-related conditions, inhibit the growth of microbes, and possibly reduce cancer risks.

Mountain savory also rates very highly when tested against a wide variety of microbes, including fungal, bacterial, and viral strains. This oil should be considered for use with abscesses, athlete’s foot, colds, coughs, gingivitis, and any type of infection. It is a good choice when a circulatory stimulant or warming oil is needed.

Though not often used alone for this purpose mountain savory, added to an essential oil blend, is useful for arthritis, muscle soreness, bruising, and scarring of body tissues. Mountain savory is sometimes used for insect bites and bee stings.

Chemical Constituents: Carvcarol, Thymol, p-cymene, y-terpineol, 1,8-cineole, borneol, a-terpineol

Companion Oils: Lavender, pine, rosemary, peppermint, spearmint, citrus oils

Precautions: If used topically, always dilute; possible skin irritant. Avoid while pregnant.

Science and Research


Mugwort (Artemisia Vulgaris)

  • Additional Name(s): Indian Wormwood
  • Color: Clear to light yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Powerful, fresh, camphorous, somewhat green and bittersweet scent.

Action: Anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, antispasmodic, choleretic, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, nervine, stimulant, tonic, vermifuge, antiparasitic.

Benefits, Indications: The essential oil is good for women’s complaints and supports the womb. It eases painful menstrual cramps, relaxes tension through the abdominal area and encourages blood flow when periods are delayed or scanty. With skin complaints mugwort is said to alleviate eczema, acne and psoriasis.

It is also helpful with actinic keratosis, reducing the abnormal cell production and promoting healthy cell growth. Some of the research shows that mugwort is useful for arthritis and other inflammatory conditions of the joints. It eases achy muscles and stiffness and brings increases circulation to the affected area.

It can also be effective in loosening phlegm and mucus, especially with bronchitis and chest colds. It is used today for intestinal complaints, worm infestations, headaches, muscle spasms, circulatory problems, menstrual problems/PMS, dysentery, gout, and as a treatment for hysteria and epilepsy.

Chemical Constituents: a-thujone, b-thujone, 1,8-cineole, camphene and camphone

Companion Oils: ambrette, amyris, angelica root, balsam fir, basil, benzoin, bergamot, caraway, carrot seed, cedarleaf, chamomile, cistus, clary sage, clove bud, cypress, eucalyptus, frankincense, guaiacwood, gurjun balsam, juniper, labdanum, lavandin, lemon, lemongrass, myrrh, oakmoss, orris, patchouli, pine, rosemary, sage, spearmint, tonka bean

Precautions: Oral toxin, avoid in pregnancy and with infants and children, thujone can interfere with brain and nervous system function. Mugwort oil should not be used in aromatherapy as it is considered to be toxic, a neurotoxin and an abortifacient.

Science and Research


Mullein (Verbascum Thapsus)

  • Color: Pale Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Spicy with a nutmeg-like character.

Action: Expectorant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, tranquilizer, antimicrobial, febrifuge, diuretic, antitumor, muscle relaxant, analgesic, antioxidant, anti-arthritic

Benefits, Indications: This oil is used to treat all ailments of the respiratory system, such as congestion, coughs, whooping cough, bronchitis, laryngitis, pharyngitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, tracheitis, and asthma, as well as infectious diseases like influenza, tuberculosis, and urinary tract infections. It is also used to treat chilblains and hemorrhoids.

Chemical Constituents: Coumarin, rotenone, tannins, saponins, aucubin, catalpol, flavonoids, verbascoside

Companion Oils: Basil, eucalyptus, garlic, thyme

Precautions: Essential oil safety data is not available. Use caution.

Mustard (Brassica Nigra)

  • Color: Yellowish – clear
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Unknown
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Crisp, pungent, strong and intense aroma (reminiscent of horseradish).

Action: Stimulant, irritant, appetizer, antibacterial, antifungal, insect repellent, hair vitalizer, cordial, diaphoretic, antirheumatic, tonic

Benefits, Indications: Mustard essential oil is an amazing oil that can be used for a number of different purposes. Due to its irritant properties, it can be used to stimulate a particular area of body that is experiencing numbness.

This oil is equally effective in boosting the appetite and stimulating the digestive system. Mustard essential oil is also very popular due to its antibacterial properties.

It can be used to kill internal bacteria as well as external bacteria. This oil is widely used to treat the internal infection related to the digestive system, excretory system, urinary tract and colon. Moreover, this oil is also widely used to control hair loss and deal with infection related to the scalp.

Chemical Constituents: The main chemical component of mustard oil is no less than 92% allyl isothiocyanate. It also contains oleic acid, omega-6 linoleic acid, omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid and erucic acid

Companion Oils: No information regarding its blending is known specifically, but it is extremely rare to see this as an aromatherapy option due to its mildly irritating nature.

Precautions: When mustard oil is inhaled, it produces an extremely unpleasant sensation in the occipital regions of the head and causes inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eyes and the mucus membranes of the respiratory system. When applied to the skin, it provokes a burning sensation and should never be used in aromatherapy.

Science and Research


Myrrh (Commiphora Myrrha)

  • Color: Golden Yellow/Brown
  • Oil Consistency: Medium
  • Perfumery Note: Base
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium – Strong
  • Scent: Warm, earthy, woody, balsamic.

Action: Anti-infectious, antiviral, antiparasitic, hormone-like, anti-inflammatory, soothes skin conditions, antihyperthyroid, immunostimulant, anticatarrhal, antimicrobial, antiphlogistic, antiseptic, astringent, balsamic, carminative, cicatrisant, emmenagogue, expectorant, fungicidal, sedative, digestive and pulmonary stimulant, stomachic, tonic, uterine, vulnerary

Benefits, Indications: Bronchitis, diarrhea, dysentery, hyperthyroidism, stretch marks, thrush, ulcers, vaginal thrush, viral hepatitis. May be used to help asthma, athlete’s foot, candida, coughs, eczema, digestion, fungal infection, gingivitis, gum infections, hemorrhoids, mouth ulcers, ringworm, sore throats, wounds and wrinkles.

More Info: Myrrh oil is effective against excessive mucus in the lungs and helps to clear ailments such as colds, catarrh, coughs, sore throats and bronchitis. It is used for diarrhea, dyspepsia, flatulence and hemorrhoids. It is very good for mouth and gum disorders, such as mouth ulcers, pyorrhea, gingivitis, spongy gums and sore throats.

On the skin, it is used with great success on boils, skin ulcers, bedsores, chapped and cracked skin, ringworm, weeping wounds, eczema and athlete’s foot. Furthermore, it is of great help to promote menstruation and for relieving painful periods and to ease difficult labor in childbirth.

Chemical Constituents: a-pinene, cadinene, limonene, cuminaldehyde, eugenol, m-cresol, heerabolene, acetic acid, formic acid and other sesquiterpenes and acids

Companion Oils: Frankincense, lavender, patchouli, sandalwood, all spice oils

Precautions: Myrrh oil is non-irritant and non-sensitizing, but could be toxic in high dosage and should not be used in pregnancy, as it can act as a uterine stimulant.

Science and Research


Myrtle (Myrtus Communis)

  • Color: Pale Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top – Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Sweet, slightly camphorous with a floral hint.

Action: Expectorant, anti-infectious, liver stimulant, astringent, antiseptic, nervine, prostate decongestant, light antispasmodic, regulator for thyroid and ovary, skin tonic.

Benefits, Indications: Bronchitis, coughs, hypothyroidism, insomnia, prostate congestion, respiratory tract ailments, sinus infection, tuberculosis, ureter infections. May help anger, asthma, respiratory infections, cystitis, diarrhea, dysentery, impaired digestion, hemorrhoids, hormonal imbalances.

It may also support the immune system, fight infections, sinusitis, infectious diseases, pulmonary disorders, aid skin conditions (acne, blemishes, bruises, oily skin, psoriasis, etc.). Useful on children for chest complaints and coughs.

Chemical Constituents: Cineol, myrtenol, pinene, geraniol, linalool, camphene

Companion Oils: Bay, bergamot, black pepper, clary sage, clove, ginger, hyssop, lavender, lime, rosemary

Precautions: No special precautions when using this oil.

Science and Research


A B C D E F G H J K L M N O P R S T V W Y

-N-

Naouli (Melaleuca Quinquenervia)

  • Additional Name(s): Niaouli
  • Color: Colorless, pale yellow, greenish
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Sweet, fresh, camphoraceous

Action: Male hormone-like, analgesic, anthelmintic, antiseptic, anticatarrhal, antirheumatic, antispasmodic, bactericidal, balsamic, cicatrizane, diaphoretic, expectorant, regulator, stimulant, vermifuge, anti-inflammatory, anti-infectious, antibacterial, antiviral, antiparasitic

Benefits, Indications: Mucous in respiratory passages, the urinary tract and genital organs; also good for high blood pressure. May help with respiratory allergies, infections and hemorrhoids. Also effective for acne, boils, burns, cuts, insect bites, oily skin, spots, ulcers, wounds, muscular aches and pains, poor circulation, rheumatism, asthma, bronchitis, catarrh, coughs, sinusitis, sore throat, whooping cough, urinary infection, colds, fever, flu.

Chemical Constituents: 1,8-Cineole, Viridiflorol, limonene, pinene, terpineol, ledol, ledene, others

Companion Oils: Coriander, fennel, juniper berry, lavender, lime, pine, peppermint

Precautions: Possible contact sensitization with repeated use.

Science and Research


Neroli (Citrus Aurantium)

  • Color: Coffee Brown
  • Oil Consistency: Medium
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Floral, citrusy, sweet, exotic.

Action: Anti-infectious, antibacterial, antiparasitic, digestive tonic, antidepressant, hypotensive, antiseptic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, bactericidal, carminative, cicatrisant, cytophylactic, cordial, deodorant, emollient, sedative, tonic

Benefits, Indications: Anxiety, depression, digestive spasms, fear, headaches, heart arrhythmia, hysteria, insomnia, nervous tension, palpitations, PMS, poor circulation, scars, shock, stress-related conditions, stretch marks, tachycardia, thread (spider) veins, wrinkles.

More Info: May support the digestive system and fight bacteria, infections, parasites, and viruses. Neroli oil is very relaxing and can relieve chronic anxiety, depression, fear, shock and stress and its calming effect can also be beneficial to the digestive tract. It can be used for intestinal spasms, colitis and diarrhea.

It helps insomnia, and as one of the essential oils with the most sedative effects is useful for treating depression, anxiety and shock and is also effective in calming heart palpitations, treating headaches, neuralgia and vertigo.

It can help when a patient is convalescing and is a good general tonic. On the skin, neroli oil can help to regenerate skin cells and is a rejuvenating oil useful to prevent ugly scar tissue, promote a smoother skin, fighting stretch marks and broken capillaries.

Chemical Constituents: a-pinene, camphene, b-pinene, a-terpinene, nerol, neryl acetate, farnesol, geraniol, linalool, nerolidol, linalyl acetate, methyl anthranilate, indole

Companion Oils: Cedarwood, geranium, jasmine, lavender, rose, sandalwood, benzoin, all the citrus oils, rosemary, ylang-ylang.

Precautions: Neroli oil is nontoxic, non-sensitizing, non-irritant and non-phototoxic yet must be used sparingly when a sharp clear head is needed, as it can be very relaxing.

Science and Research


Nutmeg (Myristica Fragrans)

  • Color: Coffee Brown
  • Oil Consistency: Medium
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Floral, citrusy, sweet, exotic.

Action: Antiseptic, antiparasitic, analgesic, emmenagogue, improves circulation, analgesic, antirheumatic, antispasmodic, carminative, digestive, emmenagogue, laxative, parturient, stimulant, tonic.

Benefits, Indications: Loss of appetite, chronic debility, digestion (helps with starchy foods and fats), gallstones, halitosis, rheumatism. This oil has adrenal cortex-like activity which helps support the adrenal glands for increased energy. It may also help treat arthritis, bacterial infection, frigidity, gout, impotence, menstrual problems, nausea, severe nerve pain.

Nutmeg oil stimulates the heart and circulation, activates the mind and revives people from fainting spells, while stimulating the digestive system and fighting flatulence, nausea, chronic vomiting and diarrhea. It encourages appetite and averts constipation, fights gallstones and is a tonic for the reproductive system, while regulating scanty periods, and relieving frigidity and impotence.

It can aid births by strengthening contractions. The oil has shown good anti-inflammatory action, and is also successful in relieving pain, especially muscular aches and pain.

Chemical Constituents: a-pinene, camphene, b-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, a-phellandrene, a-terpinene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, y-terpinene, linalool, terpinen-4-ol, safrole, methyl eugenol and myristicin

Companion Oils: Cinnamon bark, clove, cypress, frankincense, lemon, tea tree, melissa, orange, patchouli, rosemary CT cineol, black pepper, geranium, clary sage, rosemary

Precautions: Nutmeg oil is considered nontoxic, non-irritant and non-sensitizing, yet in very large dosage may become toxic with symptoms such as nausea and stupor, which is most likely due to the myristicin contained in the oil (mace oil has a higher concentration of myristicin than normal nutmeg oil). This oil should not be used during pregnancy or if epileptic.

Science and Research


A B C D E F G H J K L M N O P R S T V W Y

-O-

Oakmoss (Evernia Prunastri)

  • Color: Light Brown
  • Oil Consistency: Medium – Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Base
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Rich, earthy, woody.

Action: Antiseptic, demulcent, expectorant, restorative

Benefits, Indications: Used in perfumery for its earthy aroma and its properties as a fragrance fixative. It can be recommended for such health conditions as dyspepsia, increased acidity, various irritations of digestive system, and so on. It can be used to prevent inflammation of the nervous system and even brain.

Oakmoss oil benefits also include excellent restorative properties, which play a role in skin care. In addition to speeding up wound healing, this natural extract can be used for healing skin inflammations and viral infections, moisturizing and improving oil balance of skin, as well as for keeping the skin soft and smooth. It gives immense relief from congestion in the chest, breathing troubles, asthma attacks, and coughs.

Chemical Constituents: Evernic acid, d-usnic acid, atranorine, chloratronorine

Companion Oils: Anise, bay, bergamot, clary sage, eucalyptus, ginger, lavender, lime, orange, palmarosa, tea tree, vetiver, ylang ylang

Precautions: Not for internal use. Avoid in epilepsy and while pregnant. May cause skin irritation.

Opopanax (Commiphora Guidottii / Commiphora Erythraea)

  • Additional Name(s): Sweet Myrrh, Scented Myrrh
  • Color: Pale Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle/Base
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: The aroma shares some similarity to that of Myrrh Oil. It is deep, resinous and woody.

Action: Antiseptic, antispasmodic, expectorant, fragrance fixative.

Benefits, Indications: Aromatherapy uses of Opopanax have been suggested to be similar to myrrh essential oil. Opoponax has muscle relaxing properties. Due to its drying action is effective against excessive mucous in the lungs. Recommended in cases of bronchitis, colds, sore throats, and coughs.

In biblical times, opopanax was applied for minor wounds, but has since fallen out of disuse medicinally. The essential oil is also used as a fixative in perfumery.

Chemical Constituents: (E)-b-ocimene, (z)-a-bisabolene, a-santalene, (E)-b-bergamotene, a-Bergamotene, germacrene D, decanol

Companion Oils: Bergamot, clary sage, coriander, labdanum, mimosa, myrrh, neroli, patchouli, sandalwood, vetiver

Precautions: May cause sensitization.

Science and Research


Oregano (Origanum Compactum)

  • Color: Pale Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Medium
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Herbaceous, sharp.

Action: Powerful anti-infectious agent (for respiratory, intestines, genital, nerves, blood and lymphatics) with large-spectrum action against bacteria, mycobacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites, antiparasitic, antiseptic, antiviral. It is a general tonic and immunostimulant.

Benefits, Indications: Asthma, bronchitis (chronic), mental disease, pulmonary tuberculosis, rheumatism, whooping cough. May help respiratory infections, digestion problems, viral and bacterial pneumonia, balance metabolism and strengthen the vital centers. Studies have shown its usefulness against candida, aspergillus, staph infections, vaginal infections, pseudomonas and listeria.

A study from the US Department of Agriculture showed that the essential oil presented antimicrobial activities against salmonella and E.coli. Other research holds the same, stating that oregano oil is such a powerful antimicrobial that it can be used to preserve food.

Studies from the Department of Food Science at the University of Tennessee and the University of the Algarve found similar results for oregano’s antibacterial action on pathogenic germs.

Chemical Constituents: carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene, cis-ocimene, caryophyllene, linalool

Companion Oils: Bay, bergamot, camphor, cedarwood, chamomile, citronella, cypress, eucalyptus, lavender, lemon, oakmoss, orange, petitgrain, pine, rosemary, tea tree, thyme

Precautions: High phenol content can burn the skin – dilute 1 drop essential oil to 50 drops vegetable or massage oil for topical application other than the bottom of feet. Use extra caution to avoid contact with all mucus membranes.

Oregano oil from Origanum vulgare, as well as oil extracted from Thymus capitatus (Spanish oregano), is a dermal toxin, skin irritant and mucus membrane irritant and should not be used in aromatherapy and should also be avoided in pregnancy.

Spanish oregano is aka Thymus capitans, Coridothymus capitatus, Satureja capitata, Israeli oreganum, Cretan thyme or thyme of the ancients.

Science and Research


A B C D E F G H J K L M N O P R S T V W Y

-P-

Palmarosa (Cymbopogon Margin)

  • Color: Pale Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Fresh, floral, sweet, somewhat similar to geranium oil.

Action: Antimicrobial, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, uterine tonic, cardiotonic, antiseptic, bactericidal, cytophylactic, digestive, febrifuge

Benefits, Indications: May be beneficial for rashes, candida, the cardiovascular system, digestive and nervous systems, fighting infections. It is valuable for all types of skin problems because it stimulates new cell growth, regulates oil production, moisturizes and speeds healing.

Palmarosa oil calms the mind, yet has an uplifting effect, while clearing muddled thinking. It is used to counter physical and nervous exhaustion, stress-related problems and nervousness. It is most useful during convalescence and cools the body of fever, while aiding the digestive system, helping to clear intestinal infection, digestive atonia and anorexia. It is effective in relieving sore, stiff muscles.

Palmarosa oil moisturizes the skin, while balancing the hydration levels and stimulating cell regeneration. It balances production of sebum, to keep the skin supple and elastic and is valuable for use with acne, dermatitis, preventing scarring, rejuvenating and regenerating the skin, as well as fighting minor skin infections; sore, tired feet and athlete’s foot.

Chemical Constituents: myrcene, linalool, geraniol, geranyl acetate, dipentene and limonene

Companion Oils: Basil, fennel, geranium, lemongrass, myrtle, pine, rosemary CT cineol, thyme

Precautions: Palmarosa oil has no known contraindications and is considered a nontoxic, non-irritant and non-sensitizing essential oil.

Palo Santo (Bursera Graveolens)

  • Additional Name(s): Holy Wood, Saint Wood
  • Color: Clear – Pale Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Sweet, woody, citrusy and slightly minty.

Action: Grounding, calming, analgesic, anti-allergenic, anti-anxiety, anti-asthmatic, antibacterial, antidepressant, anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antispasmodic, cephalic, CNS tonic, decongestant, expectorant, immunostimulant, tonic

Benefits, Indications: Palo Santo has been used for hundreds of years by native shamans for spiritual applications. For those who integrate essential oils within meditation, prayer or other spiritual applications, Palo Santo is an oil to pay close attention to. Highly regarded for use within vibrational work and clearing negativity. Opens the third eye and crown chakras. Insect repellent.

This oil is very effective for colds, flu, sinus infections, coughs, bronchitis and especially asthma, as well as muscular aches and pain. This is due to its extremely high content of limonene (a monoterpene). Emotionally, Palo Santo Oil is grounding and elicits a sense of peacefulness and calm. It is a good repellent for mosquitoes and other insects. Palo Santo has a pleasant aroma which is plus when needing an insect repellent.

Chemical Constituents: (+)-limonene, (+)-menthofuran, a-terpineol, carvone, germacrene d

Companion Oils: Other woods and resins such as cedar, frankincense, sandalwood, myrrh

Precautions: No known contraindications, but care should be taken as with all oils. Do not use if oxidized. Avoid use during pregnancy. Do not take Palo Santo essential oil internally.

Science and Research


Parsley (Petroselinum Sativum)

  • Color: Light Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium – Strong
  • Scent: Herbaceous, somewhat woody aroma.

Action: Antimicrobial, antirheumatic, anti-arthritic, antiseptic, astringent, carminative, detoxifier, digestive, diuretic, depurative, emmenagogue, febrifuge, hypotensive, laxative, stimulant, stomachic, uterine

Benefits, Indications: Mainly used for its digestive properties. It has also been known to aid with kidney and bladder ailments. Amenorrhea, arthritis, cellulitis, cystitis, frigidity, griping pains, dyspepsia, rheumatism, toxic build-up. It is wonderful for digestive disorders and can relieve colic, flatulence, dyspepsia and bad breath.

It is one of the ingredients in “gripe water” which is a liquid mixture designed to reduce a baby’s upset, colicky tummy. Parsley can be used as a tonic for the uterus, aiding in labor. It can also increase menstrual flow or bring on a late period; and because of this, should not be used by pregnant women, lest it encourage early labor or miscarriage.

Parsley is helpful with cystitis and urinary infections and can be used in a douche to cleanse the area. It has a diuretic effect and can reduce the stagnation of edema, cellulitis and puffy joints.

Chemical Constituents: Apiol, myristicin, tetramethoxyally-benzene, pinene

Companion Oils: Anise, bay, black pepper, clary sage, coriander, ginger, neroli, oakmoss, rose, tea tree, ylang ylang

Precautions: Not for internal use. Avoid while pregnant. May cause skin irritation. Parsely seed essential oil is moderately toxic and irritant – myristicin has been shown to have toxic properties, and apiol has been shown to have irritant properties; otherwise non-sensitizing. Use in moderation.

Science and Research


Patchouli (Pogostemon Cablin)

  • Color: Deep Golden Brown
  • Oil Consistency: Medium – Thick
  • Perfumery Note: Base
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Rich, earthy, woody aroma with a nearly hidden fruity note.

Action: Digestive, decongestant, anti-inflammatory, anti-infectious, antimicrobial, antiseptic, emollient, antidepressant, antiphlogistic, aphrodisiac, astringent, cicatrisant, cytophylactic, deodorant, diuretic, febrifuge, fungicide, insecticidal

Benefits, Indications: Allergies, dermatitis, eczema, hemorrhoids, tissue regeneration. Helps the body eliminate toxic material. It may also curb appetite; it helps with acne; soothes insect bites, helps with cellulite, congestion, dandruff, depression, weight control, relieves itching from hives, helps with skin conditions (chapped and loose skin), fluid retention and weeping wounds.

Patchouli oil has a grounding and balancing effect on the emotions and banishes lethargy, while sharpening the wits, fighting depression and anxiety. It is also said to create an amorous atmosphere. It is effective for fungal and bacterial infection and is of great help for insect bites.

It could also be used as an insect repellent and used as a support for dealing with any substance addiction. With its excellent diuretic properties, it is effective in fighting water retention and to break up cellulite, easing constipation and helping to reduce weight.

Chemical Constituents: b-patchoulene, a-guaiene, caryophyllene, a-patchoulene, seychellene, a-bulnesene, norpatchoulenol, patchouli alcohol, pogostol

Companion Oils: Bergamot, clary sage, frankincense, geranium, ginger, lavender, lemongrass, myrrh, pine, rosewood, sandalwood

Precautions: It is nontoxic, non-irritant and non-sensitizing, but the smell of patchouli oil may be a little persistent for some people and large doses may cause loss of appetite in some individuals.

Science and Research


Pennyroyal (Mentha Pulegium)

  • Color: Clear to light yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Mild
  • Scent: Fresh, minty, herbaceous

Action: Antihysteric, antimicrobial, antibacterial, antirheumatic, anti-arthritic, antiseptic, depurative, digestive, emmenagogue, insecticidal, astringent, cordial, decongestant, stomachic

Benefits, Indications: Used to repel insects, especially fleas in dogs and cats. Used for lung congestion and pain from infections, coughs, colds, asthmatic bronchitis (1-2 drops steam inhalation), massage for painful menstruation cramps, headaches, nervous disturbance.

Chemical Constituents: Pulegone, menthone, iso-menthone and neomenthone

Companion Oils: Citronella, geranium, lavender, rosemary, sage

Precautions: Pennyroyal oil should not be used in aromatherapy and even in small doses produces acute liver and lung damage. Pennyroyal oil is a toxin and abortifacient (due to the pulegone content) and if ingested in large doses, pennyroyal oil can cause death.

Science and Research


Peppermint (Mentha Piperita)

  • Color: Clear with a Yellow Tinge
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Minty, reminiscent of peppermint candies, but more concentrated. More fragrant than spearmint.

Action: Anticarcinogenic, antiparasitic, decongestant, anti-infectious, antibacterial, antifungal, mucolytic, stimulant, hypertensive, cardiotonic, expectorant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anesthetic, antiseptic, antigalactagogue, antiphlogistic, antispasmodic, astringent, carminative, cephalic, cholagogue, cordial, emmenagogue, febrifuge, hepatic, nervine, stimulant, stomachic, sudorific, vasoconstrictor, vermifuge

Benefits, Indications: Asthma, bronchitis, candida, diarrhea, digestive problems, fever, nausea, halitosis, hemorrhoids, hot flashes, menstrual irregularity, headaches, motion sickness, tumor growth, respiratory infections, shock, itchy skin, throat infections, varicose veins.

May help arthritis, depression, skin conditions (eczema, psoriasis, dermatitis), food poisoning, hives, hysteria, inflammation, morning sickness, nerve regeneration, rheumatism, elevate and open sensory system, ease the pain of toothaches, kill tuberculosis bacillus (according to recent research). It can heighten or restore the sense of taste by stimulating the trigeniminal nerve.

Peppermint oil is excellent for mental fatigue and depression, refreshing the spirit and stimulating mental agility and improving concentration. It helps apathy, shock, migraine, nervous stress, vertigo and faintness and general respiratory disorders, as well as dry coughs, sinus congestion, asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis and cholera.

For the digestive system, peppermint oil is effective for a range of ailments, as it stimulates the gallbladder and the secretion of bile. It is used for colic, cramps, dyspepsia, spastic colon, flatulence and can relieve pain of aching feet, neuralgia, muscular pains and painful periods.

Supplemental Information:

Chemical Constituents: Menthol, menthone, 1,8-cineole, methyl acetate, methofuran, isomenthone, limonene, b-pinene, a-pinene, germacrene-d, trans-sabinene hydrate, pulegone

Companion Oils: Benzoin, eucalyptus, lavender, marjoram, lemon, rosemary

Precautions: Peppermint oil is nontoxic and non-irritant in low dilutions, but sensitization may be a problem due to the menthol content. It can cause irritation to the skin and mucus membranes and should be kept well away from the eyes. It should be avoided during pregnancy and should not be used on children under seven.

Science and Research


Peru Balsam (Myroxylon Pereirae)

  • Color: Dark Brown
  • Oil Consistency: Very Thick
  • Perfumery Note: Base
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Sweet, fresh, earthy, balsamic.

Action: Antioxidant, cicatrisant, deodorant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, expectorant, stimulant, fixative, anti-mites, antiseptic, antibacterial, diuretic, balsamic, parasiticide, stimulant, promotes the growth of epithelial cells.

Benefits, Indications: Effective on chafed skin to soothe, massage of muscles for circulation, inhalant for respiratory and immune systems, effective at relieving itch of scabies, ringworm and eczema, as well as for relieving chapped hands and feet. Exotic aroma, anchoring, strengthening and imparts a rich, earthy scent to perfumes.

It is useful in bronchitis, chapped skin, colds, coughing, eczema, flu, poor circulation, rashes, sensitive skin, and stress.

Chemical Constituents: Ester. benzoic acid, cinnamic acid, benzyl benziate, benzyl cinnamate, cinnamyl cinnamate

Companion Oils: Cardamom, cedarwood, cinnamon, clove, fir balsam, jasmine, mandarin, orange, orris, patchouli, petitgrain, rose, sandalwood, tonka bean, tuberose, vanilla, violet leaf, ylang ylang

Precautions: Several sensitizing compounds are present in Balsam of Peru resin that are generally not found in the essential oil; published data do not support the conclusion that Balsam of Peru oil is a strong sensitizer. However, there is moderate risk of skin sensitization in the case of hypersensitive, diseased or damaged skin, and children under 2 years of age.

Maximum dermal use level for Balsam of Peru oil is 0.4% according to IFRA (International Fragrance Association) guidelines.

Petitgrain (Citrus Aurantium)

  • Color: Clear with a Yellow Tinge
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Fresh, floral, citrusy, lighter in fragrance than neroli and slightly woody.

Action: Antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, anti-infectious, antibacterial, antiseptic, antidepressant, deodorant, sedative, nervine.

Benefits, Indications: May help reestablish nerve equilibrium. It may also help with acne, fatigue, greasy hair, insomnia and excessive perspiration. Petitgrain oil can help with nervous exhaustion and stress-related conditions and in particular anger and panic.

It calms and soothes the mind, while relaxing the body, easing breathing, reducing rapid heart beat, relaxing muscle spasms and stomach pains. It is great oil to use for convalescing after an illness and also for insomnia and helps to clear up a greasy skin, acne and excessive perspiration, while toning the skin.

Chemical Constituents: Geraniol, linalool, nerol, y-terpineol, geranyl acetate, linalyl acetate, myrcene, neryl acetate and trans-ocimene

Companion Oils: Bergamot, cistus, clary sage, clove, geranium, jasmine, lavender, neroli, orange, palmarosa, rosemary CT cineol

Precautions: Petitgrain oil is in general nontoxic, non-irritant, non-sensitizing and non-phototoxic.

Science and Research


Pine (Pinus Sylvestris)

  • Color: Clear
  • Oil Consistency: Medium and Slightly Oily
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium – Strong
  • Scent: Fresh, woody, earthy, balsamic

Action: Hormone-like, antidiabetic, cortisone-like, sexual stimulant, hypertensive, anti-infectious, antifungal, antiseptic, antimicrobial, antineuralgic, antirheumatic, antiviral, bactericidal, balsamic, cholagogue, deodorant, diuretic, expectorant, insecticidal, restorative, rubefacient, adrenal cortex stimulant as well as stimulant to the circulation and nervous system.

Benefits, Indications: Asthma, pulmonary infections, bronchitis, diabetes, severe infections, rheumatoid arthritis. May help dilate the respiratory system, particularly the bronchial tract. It may also help with respiratory infections, coughs, cysts, fatigue, nervous exhaustion, scabies, skin parasites, sores, stress, urinary infections.

More Info: Pine oil may also help increase blood pressure and stimulate the adrenal glands and the circulatory system. Pine oil is a good ingredient for any first aid kit. It is most useful to relieve mental, physical and sexual fatigue, while having a cleansing and invigorating effect on an area and is great for vapor therapy in a sick room as it promotes healing.

It can be used for cuts and sores, scabies and lice and for excessive perspiration, while its warming properties help with rheumatism, gout, muscular aches and pains and it can stimulate circulation.

Furthermore it can help in cases of bronchitis, asthma, catarrh, laryngitis, colds and flu. It eases breathlessness and sinusitis. As a general kidney cleanser, it is effective with cystitis, prostate problems and can also help with nervous exhaustion, neuralgia and mental fatigue.

Chemical Constituents: Borneol, bornyl acetate, a and b-phallandrene, a and b-pinene, 3-carene

Companion Oils: Cedarwood, eucalyptus radiata, juniper, lavender, lemon, marjoram, tea tree, rosemary CT cineol

Precautions: Although pine and pine needle oil is considered nontoxic and non-irritant in low dosage, it should still be used with care on the skin since it can cause irritation in high dosage and may sensitize the skin as well. The oil from the dwarf pine (Pinus mugo. var. pumilio) is a dermal irritant and a sensitizing agent.

Do not use if you are prone to allergic skin reactions or are pregnant.

Science and Research


Pink Lotus Absolute (Nelumbo Nucifera)

  • Color: Very Dark, Brownish Orange-Red
  • Oil Consistency: Thick
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: A honeyed, soft, very intense floral, earthy and quite sweet, with ripe-fruit and coumarin-like undertones.

Action: Astringent, cardiotonic, febrifuge, hypotensive, resolvent, stomachic, tonic, vasodilator.

Benefits, Indications: Pink Lotus pure essential oil has been known to encourage peace and tranquility of the mind, body and spirit. This is a great oil to ease into mediation with. It promotes open and easy breathing making the body ready for a calm and restful time. It also aids the mind in times of change, to sooth the soul, and aid the body in exertion.

Pink Lotus encourages the mind, spirit, and body to reach their full potentials as a unit. Used in natural perfumery, meditative and devotional practices. Pink Lotus works on the solar plexus, liver and gallbladder — helps to heal anger, unwinds emotional issues in the liver and gallbladder and opening the throat chakra — helps release internalized anger.

Chemical Constituents: Alcohol, lotusine, neferin

Companion Oils: Ambrette, amyris, black pepper, clove, galbanum, grapefruit, jasmine, lime, patchouli, rose, sandalwood, spikenard, vanilla

Precautions: Dilute before using. A patch test should be performed before use for those with sensitive skin.

Science and Research


Pink Pepper (Schinus Molle)

  • Additional Name(s): Pink Peppercorn
  • Color: Clear
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Crisp, fresh, peppercorn aroma.

Action: Antiseptic, antiviral, stimulant, bactericidal, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, antioxidant, antirheumatic, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, anticancerous, analgesic,antihemorrhagic, cardiotonic, aperient, digestive stimulant

Benefits, Indications: Pink pepper is botanically unrelated to black pepper, but is used in many of the same ways as both a spice and essential oil. Pink Pepper is helpful for treating poor circulation, arthritis, respiratory ailments, digestive problems, infections, and viral illnesses.

This essential oil is reported to be a strong antifungal said to aid conditions of candida and other fungi/yeasts; is good for colds, flu and upper respiratory infections; believed to increase blood circulation; recommended for its anti-inflammatory action with arthritis and rheumatism; and is a viable insecticidal. Numerous scientific studies give credence to these claims.

Chemical Constituents: b-myrcene, a-phellandrene, p-cymene, delta-cadinene, limonene, b-phellandrene

Companion Oils: Black pepper, cardamom, carrot seed, citrus oils, clary sage, clove, frankincense, geranium, ginger, lavender, juniper, marjoram, myrrh, nutmeg, palo santo, rosemary, sage, sandalwood, tea tree, vetiver, yarrow, ylang ylang

Precautions: Not compatible with homeopathic treatment. Possible sensitization in some individuals; err on side of caution-seek advice first if pregnant.

Science and Research


Plai (Mentha Arvensis)

  • Color: Pale Amber
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Earthy, exotic, fresh, herbaceous, sensual, spicy, slightly smokey, sweet and floral.

Action: Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, rejuvenating, relaxing, antibacterial, antifungal, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral, anti-anxiety, carminative, cooling, immunostimulant, insect repellent, tonic, antineuralgic, diuretic, febrifuge, laxative, rubefacient, stimulant, vermifuge.

Benefits, Indications: Plai is a member of the ginger family but more potent. Due to it’s very high levels of Terpinine-4ol (the component that gives Tea Tree its antimicrobial properties) Plai is known as an exceptionally great ‘all-around’ healing oil.

Plai is soothing and cooling making it a highly reached-for oil by Thai massage therapists needing a quick and extraordinarily long lasting analgesic solution with conditions of arthritis, rheumatism, and sports related tendinitis. Because of its analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects Plai is an excellent addition in sports injury related massage oils.

It is also useful for post-operative pain and inflammation and its powerful analgesic properties are reported to ease pain for up to 16-20 hours. It can help to settle digestive problems such as nausea, stomach cramps, flatulence, constipation, diarrhea and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Its anti-spasmodic action is also beneficial for period pains.

It can also help to stimulate the immune system and boost vitality. Its antimicrobial properties are effective in fighting infection and it can also be helpful for respiratory problems such as asthma, catarrh, chronic colds and flu. Plai is still a relatively little known oil and doesn’t yet have a long history of use. Aromatherapists are still collecting data as to its properties and potential applications.

Chemical Constituents: Sabinene, terpinene-4-ol, gamma terpinene, alpha terpinene

Companion Oils: Bergamot, black pepper, cypress, lavender, lemon, marjoram, neroli, orange, rosemary, sandalwood

Precautions: No known contraindications, but care should be taken as with all oils.

Science and Research


A B C D E F G H J K L M N O P R S T V W Y

-R-

Ravensara (Ravensara Aromatica)

  • Color: Clear with a Tinge of Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Slightly medicinal, eucalyptus-like, slightly sweet with a fruity hint.

Action: Anti-infectious, antiviral, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-allergenic, antitumor, aphrodisiac, antispasmodic, antidepressant, carminative, antioxidant, antiperspirant, antibacterial, expectorant, antimicrobial, supports the nerves and respiratory system.

Benefits, Indications: Bronchitis, cholera, herpes, infectious mononucleosis, insomnia, muscle fatigue, rhinopharyngitis, shingles, sinusitis, viral hepatitis. May help asthma, cystitis, burns, cancer, respiratory infections, cuts, pneumonia, scrapes, viral infections, wounds and it strengthens the respiratory system.

More Info: Some of the most notorious bacteria and microbes cannot even stand to be near this essential oil. They fear it more than anything and there are good reasons for that. This oil is fatal to the bacteria and microbes and can wipe out entire colonies very efficiently.

It inhibits their growth, cures old infections and stops new infections from forming. Therefore, it can be used against diseases resulting from bacterial and viral infections such as food poisoning, cholera, and typhoid.

This oil is very good for countering depression and giving a boost to positive thoughts and feelings of hope. This efficient bacteria fighter is a virus fighter too. It stops viral growth by rupturing the cyst (the protective coating on the virus) and then killing the virus inside.

An expectorant like Ravensara essential oil is necessary in cases of coughs, congestion, asthma, breathing troubles and heaviness in the chest arising from the hardening of phlegm in the bronchi, trachea, larynx, pharynx and lungs.

Chemical Constituents: 1,8-cineole, beta-pinene

Companion Oils: Bay, bergamot, black pepper, cardamom, cedarwood, clary sage, cypress, eucalyptus, frankincense, geranium, ginger, grapefruit, lavender, lemon, mandarin, marjoram, palmarosa, pine, rosemary, sandalwood, tea tree, thyme

Precautions: No special precautions are indicated when using this oil.

Science and Research


Ravintsara (Cinnamomum Camphora)

Note: Ravintsara is NOT another name for Ravensara – Here is a good article on the differences between the two: Ravensara/Ravintsara Confusion

  • Additional Name(s): Ho Leaf Oil
  • Color: Clear
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Fresh, earthy, eucalyptus-like with woody and subtle peppery notes.

Action: Antibacterial, anticatarrhal, antifungal, antispasmodic, anti-infectious, antirheumatic, antiviral, decongestant, cicatrisant, expectorant, general immunostimulant, neurotonic.

Benefits, Indications: Another “universal oil” like Lavender because of its many uses. Influenza, shingles, colds, flue, herpes, rheumatism, supports the immune system, stress, depression, calms the nerves, promotes sleep, muscular aches and pains. Ravintsara can be used safely in place of, or accompanying Eucalyptus oils in all their applications.

It is well known for its sinus clearing effect making it a great choice for any upper respiratory treatments, especially environmental use, due to the pleasant aroma. Also a great addition to your morning stimulating, or detox, lines, where the aromatic impact is energizing and uplifitng.

Chemical Constituents: 1,8-cineole, sabinene, a-terpineol, a-pinene, b-pinene

Companion Oils: Bay, bergamot, black pepper, cedarwood, cypress, eucalyptus, lavender, rosemary, tea tree, thyme, sandalwood

Precautions: Always test a small amount first for sensitivity or allergic reaction. If pregnant or under a doctor’s care, consult a physician. Those with epilepsy are to use with caution.

Science and Research


Rose (Rosa Damascena)

  • Color: Deep Red for the Absolute, Light Yellow for the Steam Distillate
  • Oil Consistency: Thick for the Absolute, Thin for the Steam Distillate
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Strongly floral, sweet.

Action: Antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antiphlogistic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral, aphrodisiac, astringent, bactericidal, choleretic, cicatrisant, depurative, emmenagogue, hemostatic, hepatic, laxative, nervine, stomachic, tonic for the heart, liver, stomach, uterus.

Benefits, Indications: May help asthma, chronic bronchitis, herpes simplex, impotence, scarring, sexual debilities, skin diseases, wrinkles. Damask rose oil soothes and harmonizes the mind and helps with depression, anger, grief, fear, nervous tension and stress and at the same time addresses sexuality, self-nurturing, self esteem and dealing with emotional problems.

It is most helpful for poor circulation and heart problems, which would include heart palpitations, arrhythmia as well as high blood pressure and is also used to boost the liver and gall bladder. For the respiratory system Damask rose oil assists in cases of asthma, coughs and hay fever, and in the digestive system for liver congestion and nausea.

On the skin it is most effective for moisturizing and hydrating the skin, while having a general stimulant and antiseptic action, which is good for all skin types, but especially so for dry, mature and irritated skin. It is used to repair broken capillaries, inflammation as well as skin redness and is useful in eczema and herpes. Rose water can be used for conjunctivitis.

Supplemental Information: Rose Essential Oil for Depression and Fatigue

Chemical Constituents: The chemical constituents of rose oil are one of the most complex and contain more than 300 known compounds, yet the main chemical components of rose oil can be listed as citronellol, phenyl ethanol, geraniol, nerol, farnesol and stearpoten with traces of nonanol, linalool, nonanal, phenyl acetaldehyde, citral, carvone, citronellyl acetate, 2-phenylmenthyl acetate, methyl eugenol, eugenol, rose oxide

Companion Oils: Geranium, jasmine, clove, palmarosa

Precautions: Damask rose oil is nontoxic, non-irritant and non-sensitizing but should not be used during pregnancy.

Science and Research


Rose Geranium (Pelargonium Roseum)

  • Color: Pale Yellow to Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Medium
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Floral. similar to Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) with a slightly detectable hint of rose.

Action: Antidepressant, antiseptic, astringent, cicatrisant, cytophylactic, diuretic, deodorant, hemostatic, styptic, tonic, vermifuge, vulnerary

Benefits, Indications: Rose geranium oil has a balancing effect on the nervous system and relieves depression and anxiety, while lifting the spirits and making the world an easier place to live in. It has a balancing effect on the adrenal cortex and is great for relieving stress. Its hemostatic nature helps the body systems to balance themselves and since the adrenal cortex is stimulated and balanced, the hormonal system of the body is also corrected and aligned.

On the lymphatic system it has a greatly stimulating effect and with that helps with detoxifying the body and also affects female health in treating PMS as well as balancing vaginal secretion and heavy periods. It has a general diuretic effect on the body and balances the water systems in the body, correcting any poor elimination of water and waste material.

It is useful for treating jaundice, gall stones and can also be used for restraining nose bleeds and other hemorrhaging. On the skin, rose geranium oil helps to balance the secretion of sebum and clears sluggish and oily skins, while the antiseptic and cicatrisant properties make this oil an effective aid to help with burns, wounds, ulcers and other skin problems.

Chemical Constituents: A-pinene, myrcene, limonene, menthone, linalool, geranyl acetate, citronellol, geraniol, geranyl butyrate

Companion Oils: Angelica, basil, bergamot, carrot seed, cedarwood, citronella, clary sage, grapefruit, jasmine, lavender, lime, neroli, orange, rosemary

Precautions: Geranium oil is not indicated to cause any side effects, since it is nontoxic, non-irritant and generally non-sensitizing, yet can cause sensitivity in some people. Due to the fact that it balances the hormonal system, it might not be a good idea to use in pregnancy.

Science and Research


Rose Maroc (Rosa Centifolia)

  • Additional Name(s): Cabbage Rose
  • Color: Pale Yellow (oil) / Deep Red Orange (absolute)
  • Oil Consistency: Medium
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Floral, soft, deep, exquisite

Action: Antidepressant, antiphlogistic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, bactericidal, chleretic, Emmenagogue, hemostatic, sedative, stomachic

Benefits, Indications: Rose oil stimulates the skin, while moisturizing and hydrating. It boosts all skin types and is particularly beneficial for dry, mature, inflamed and sensitive skin. It helps to reduce skin redness, fight inflammation, and its astringent properties act as a general skin tonic

. Rose is also one of the best oils for treating female reproductive problems, pre-menstrual tension, menopausal symptoms and irregular periods. It is also beneficial for the physical heart and the respiratory and digestive systems, and can help with headaches and migraines and is reputed to have aphrodisiac properties.

It also has a profound effect on the emotional level, and is a gentle antidepressant oil. Patricia Davis in Aromatherapy: an A-Z (Random House, UK, 2004) recommends it especially for women who are feeling sad or tense, or suffering from grief.

Chemical Constituents: Citronellol 18-22%, geraniol & nerol 10-15%, stearopten 8%, phenyl ethanol 63%, farnesol 0.2 – 2% plus many other trace elements. Very complex with over 300 different chemical constituents.

Companion Oils: Frankincense, cinnamon, jasmine, neroli, geranium, bergamot, lavender, clary sage, sandalwood, patchouli

Precautions: Dilute before using. A patch test should be performed before use for those with sensitive skin.

Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis)

  • Color: Clear
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium – Strong
  • Scent: Fresh, herbaceous, sweet, slightly medicinal.

Action: Antifungal, antibacterial, antiseptic, antiparasitic, stimulant, analgesic, antidepressant, astringent, carminative, cephalic, cholagogue, cordial, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue, hepatic, hypertensive, nervine, rubefacient, sudorific, tonic.

Benefits, Indications: Rheumatism, arthritis, myalgia, hepatitis, liver conditions, menstrual disturbances, hypertension (weak doses), hypotension (strong doses), dyspepsia, bronchitis, respiratory and lung infections, hair loss (alopecia), asthma. Improves concentration and stimulates the scalp.

More Info: Rosemary oil has a pronounced action on the brain and central nervous system and is wonderful for clearing the mind and mental awareness, while having excellent brain stimulant properties, as well as improving memory. It helps with headaches, migraines, neuralgia, mental fatigue and nervous exhaustion.

The antiseptic action of rosemary oil is especially suitable for intestinal infections and diarrhea, easing colitis, dyspepsia, flatulence, hepatic disorders and jaundice and relieving pain associated with rheumatism, arthritis, muscular pain and gout. It also helps arteriosclerosis, palpitations, poor circulation and varicose veins.

The diuretic properties of rosemary oil are useful with reducing water retention during menstruation, and also with obesity and cellulite. On the respiratory system, it is effective for asthma, bronchitis, catarrh, sinus and whooping cough. Because of its astringent action, it is also effective for countering sagging skin. Its stimulating action benefits scalp disorders and encourages hair growth.

On the skin, it helps to ease congestion, puffiness and swelling and can also be used for acne, dermatitis and eczema, but a very popular use of this oil is the use in hair care products, as it has a pronounced positive effect on the health of the hair and scalp. It increases the circulation to the scalp and is therefore also effective for promoting hair growth.

Chemical Constituents: A-pinene, borneol, b-pinene, camphor, bornyl acetate, camphene, 1,8-cineole, limonene

Companion Oils: Basil, eucalyptus radiata, lavender, marjoram, peppermint, pine

Precautions: Rosemary oil should not be used during pregnancy and is unsuitable for people with epilepsy or high blood pressure.

Science and Research


Rosewood (Aniba Rosaeodora)

  • Additional Name(s): Bois-de-rose
  • Color: Clear with a Yellow Tinge
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Sweet, woody, fruity, floral aroma.

Action: Anti-infectious, antibacterial, antiviral, antiparasitic, antifungal, antidepressant, mildly analgesic, antiseptic, aphrodisiac, bactericidal, cephalic, deodorant, insecticidal and stimulant. It has been researched for its inhibition rate against gram positive and gram negative bacterial growth.

Benefits, Indications: Acne, candida, depression, eczema, oral infections, dry skin, vaginitis. May create skin elasticity and is soothing to the skin. It is recognized for its ability to get rid of candida of the skin and slow the aging process. It may also be beneficial for cuts, nausea, tissue regeneration and wounds.

It helps to create a synergism with all other oils. When feeling overburdened by the world, this oil will lift your spirits and have a balancing action effect on the mind and body. It is used with good results in reducing headaches, colds, coughs, fever and infections and is a boost for the immune system.

Its aphrodisiac properties are useful to sort out sexual problems such as impotence and frigidity. It is an excellent oil to use in skincare, as it sorts out dull, dry and oily skin, while having a cell stimulant and tissue regenerating action on the skin which promotes rejuvenation of the skin.

Chemical Constituents: A-pinene, camphene, geraniol, neral, geranial, myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, linalool, benzaldehyde, linalool oxides, a-terpineol

Companion Oils: All citrus oils and floral oils

Precautions: Rosewood oil is nontoxic, non-irritant and non-sensitizing oil and is generally regarded as safe.

Science and Research


Rue (Ruta Graveolens)

  • Color: Pale yellow to amber
  • Oil Consistency: Medium to Viscous
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Sharply herbaceous, distinctly fruity orange-like scent, with a characteristic bitter acrid back note.

Action: Antifungal, poison antidote, antibacterial, insecticidal, anti-arthritic, antirheumatic, sedative, nervine, digestive, anticonvulsant, antihysteric

Benefits, Indications: The essential oil of Rue has been used to support the recovery from poisonous bites and stings, in powders and salves for athletes foot, and to calm the spirit.

It can be used as a disinfectant and in the treatment of boils and warts. May be helpful for compression wounds, contusions, physical overexertion, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, strengthens the capillary veins, dental problems, deep aching, ‘dry socket’, painful feet and ankles, aching heels, and for painful stiffness in wrists and hands.

Chemical Constituents: 2-nonanone, 2-nonyl acetate, 2-undecanone, 2-butanone, psoralen, bergaptene, xanthotoxin

Companion Oils: Chamomile, myrrh, bay, benzoin, fennel, frankincense, thyme, pennyroyal, wormwood

Precautions: Rue is a hazardous oil, is toxic and a skin and mucus membrane irritant, is abortifacient, phototoxic and neurotoxic.

Science and Research


A B C D E F G H J K L M N O P R S T V W Y

-S-

Sage (Salvia Officinalis)

  • Additional Name(s): Dalmation Sage
  • Color: Clear
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Herbacous, fruity, fresh, camphorous.

Action: Expectorant, mucolytic, anti-infectious, anticholera, estrogen-like, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue, febrifuge, hypertensive, laxative, stomachic, tonic.

Benefits, Indications: Asthma, chronic bronchitis, sluggish digestion, gingivitis, glandular disorders, menstrual irregularity, menopause. May help improve estrogen, progesterone and testosterone balance, supports menstruation, prevents and reduces scarring, regulates circulation, soothes skin conditions and is a balancer and detoxifier of the body.

More Info: Sage contains camphor, which balances estrogen levels, providing support during PMS and menopause. It activates the nervous system and adrenal cortex and may help with illness that is related to digestion and liver problems.

It may also be beneficial for acne, arthritis, bacterial infections, dandruff, depression, eczema, fibrosis, hair loss, low blood pressure, mental fatigue, metabolism, respiratory problems, rheumatism, skin conditions, sores, sprains.

Sage strengthens the vital centers of the body, balancing the pelvic chakra where negative emotions from denial and abuse are stored. Sage oil also stimulates the lymphatic system and thereby boost glandular function while it also has value to treat dermatitis, atonic wounds, sores, ulcers, as well as insect bites and reducing large pores.

On the muscular system it can be used to ease stiff muscles and particularly fibrositis and torticollis, and eases trembling and palsy.

Chemical Constituents: A-pinene, camphene, b-pinene, myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, a-thujone, b-thujone, camphor, linalool, bornyl acetate, borneol.

Companion Oils: Bergamot, lavender, lemon, peppermint, lemongrass, pine, rosemary CT cineol

Precautions: Sage is a powerful oil and should be used with care. It is classified as an oral toxin and should be used with great care in aromatherapy. It should not be used during pregnancy, or by persons suffering from epilepsy or high blood pressure.

Science and Research


Sandalwood (Santalum Album)

  • Color: Clear with a Yellow Tinge
  • Oil Consistency: Medium – Thick
  • Perfumery Note: Base
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Rich, sweet, fragrant yet delicate, woody, floral.

Action: Antiphlogistic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, carminative, diuretic, emollient, expectorant, sedative, tonic

Benefits, Indications: High in sesquiterpenes that have been researched for their ability to stimulate the pineal gland and the limbic region of the brain, the center of emotions. The pineal gland is responsible for releasing melatonin, a powerful antioxidant that enhances deep sleep.

Sandalwood is similar to frankincense oil in its support of nerves and circulation. Bronchitis (chronic), herpes, cystitis, skin tumors. Helps with cystitis and urinary tract infections. It may also be beneficial for acne, depression, meditation, pulmonary infections, menstrual problems, nervous tension, skin infection. It helps dry or dehydrated skin.

More Info: This relaxing oil has a harmonizing and calming effect which reduces tension and confusion and is ideal for use in depression, hectic daily lifestyles and states of fear, stress, nervous exhaustion, chronic illness and anxiety. It is very useful for any chest complaints as it has a pronounced effect on the mucus membranes of both the pulmonary as well as genito-urinary tract – making it very effective for complaints of the urinary tract as well.

Chronic chest infections, sore throats and dry coughs as well as bronchitis and asthma can benefit greatly from this oil, as well as cystitis and bladder infections. It is also helpful with sexual problems such as frigidity and impotence. On the skin, sandalwood oil relieves itching and inflammation, and is most effective in relieving dehydrated skin – making it great for anti-aging skincare.

The astringent action has a great toning effect and is also used with good results in oily skin conditions and to prevent the skin from forming ugly scars and for fighting dry eczema.

Chemical Constituents: Santalol, santyl acetate and santalene

Companion Oils: Cypress, frankincense, lemon, myrrh, patchouli, spruce, bergamot, black pepper, geranium, lavender, rose, vetivert, ylang ylang

Precautions: It is considered a nontoxic, non-irritant and non-sensitizing oil.

Science and Research


Saro (Cinnamosma Fragrans)

  • Additional Name(s): Mandravasarotra
  • Color: Clear
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium – Strong
  • Scent: Camphorous yet uplifting and lemony/fruity.

Action: Anti-asthmatic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, antiparasitic, antiseptic, antiviral, decongestant, expectorant, immunostimulant

Benefits, Indications: Saro is uplifting, vitalizing and energizing without causing olfactory fatigue, acting gently yet powerfully. Saro acts deeply in helping with states of apathy, loss of motivation and the like. An amazing booster to self-confidence as well.

Saro is also excellent for beating feelings of lethargy and drowsiness, as well as for mental fogginess and difficulty concentrating. Definitely a good ally to have on hand for studying or for situations where your mind needs to be sharp as a tack!

Its camphorous/expectorant quality makes this an oil likely to be helpful with respiratory issues including easing coughs, asthma and bronchitis. Saro essential oil can be used as a gentle decongestant and expectorant for respiratory problems such as coughs, colds, flu, bronchitis and asthma.

It can be used in inhalations, chest rubs and liniments or blended into natural room sprays and surface cleansers to help fight infection. Saro is also a useful oil to include in massage blends for sore muscles or bruising.

Recent research indicates that saro may be effective against a wide range of bacterial strains including ecoli which is responsible for urinary tract infections and meningitis, as well as several bacteria strains that are responsible for dysentery and food poisoning and certain types of gastrointestinal toxicity.

It also performed well against some strains of bacteria related to vaginal infections. Klebsiella pneumoniae (which is the bacteria strain which occurs in chronic pulmonary disease and rhinoscleroma), and streptococcus pneumoniae which is responsible for certain pneumonias, endocarditis, pericarditis, and some skin infections, were also significantly reduced in laboratory tests when saro was introduced.

Research is also showing that saro is effective in the control of candida and helps to regulate the bacterial flora and fauna of the digestive tract. Saro may also prove to be effective against herpes simplex, according to some scientists.

Chemical Constituents: High content of 1.8 cineole combined with a-pinene

Companion Oils: Tea Tree, ravensara, lime

Precautions: It is recommended that Saro is not used with children or in pregnancy, epilepsy, with those having heart conditions or in other situations where fragile health exists. Avoid use on the skin. Because Saro essential oil is a strong oil with a camphoraceous aroma, it is not recommended for use with children under the age of five.

Additional care should be taken with those suffering from asthma. With asthmatics, introduce the oil slowly and be sure the aroma relaxes breathing and does not cause any sense of constriction.

Science and Research


Spanish Sage (Salvia Lavandulaefolia)

  • Color: Clear
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium/Strong
  • Scent: Herbaceous, camphorous, reminiscent in aroma to rosemary.

Action: Analgesic, anti-anxiety, anti-asthmatic, Antibacterial, antidepressant, anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, antiseptic, calming, cephalic, decongestant, estrogenic, hormone balancer, mucolytic

Benefits, Indications: Acne, cuts, dandruff, dermatitis, eczema, sweating, hair loss, arthritis, muscular aches and pains, poor circulation, rheumatism, asthma, coughs, laryngitis, colds, flu, headaches, anxiety, fragrancing. Sage is a good oil for alleviating the effects of prolonged stress on the body and the mind.

Sage cleanses energy and strengthens its ability to protect us from negative influences. Sage has a positive influence on intuition, bringing clarity and vision if we will take the time to ponder and listen.

The impact on physical health from a strong nervous system and an active lymph system cannot be over emphasized. Sage’’s ability to strengthen the pelvic chakras, and organs within it, gives vigor and strength to the vital centers of the body. Sage is believed to contain constituents that stimulate the secretion of progesterone-testosterone and keep their activities balanced.

Sage is useful for most glandular disorders, any complaint related to lymph congestion, and any disorders related to nerve deterioration or prolonged nervous stress. Sage also clears away cellular debris and strengthens cell wall integrity, making sage useful for arthritis, dandruff, hair loss, skin conditions, gingivitis, sprains, and firming tissues.

Chemical Constituents: 1,8-cineole, camphor, a-terpinyl acetate, linalool, a-pinene, camphene, b-pinene

Companion Oils: Clary sage, cypress, frankincense, geranium, lavender, lemon, patchouli, rosemary, rosewood

Precautions: Spanish Sage Oil is an abortifacient and is contraindicated in pregnancy and breastfeeding. A dermal maximum of 12.5% is recommended.

Science and Research


Spearmint (Mentha Spicata)

  • Color: Clear
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Minty, slightly fruity aroma that is less bright than peppermint.

Action: Anti-inflammatory, calmative, astringent, antiseptic, mucolytic, stimulates the gallbladder, promotes menstruation, antispasmodic, carminative, cephalic, emmenagogue, insecticidal, restorative, stimulant

Benefits, Indications: Bronchitis, candida, cystitis, hypertension. May balance and increase metabolism, may aid glandular, nervous and respiratory systems. May help with acne, stimulate a poor appetite, help bad breath, promote easier labor in childbirth, help with depression, digestion, dry skin, eczema, headaches, intestines (soothes), menstruation (to slow heavy periods), nausea, sore gums, vaginitis, excess weight.

When your mind is tired and in need of stimulation and upliftment, spearmint oil is the one for you, and although it has very many properties in common to that of peppermint oil, it contains only small amounts of menthol and is far less harsh on the skin and ideal for use in children.

It is very useful to deal with digestive problems including flatulence, constipation, diarrhea and nausea, as it relaxes the stomach muscles and also relieves hiccups. Furthermore, it helps with headaches, migraines, nervous strain, fatigue and stress, as well as for the respiratory tract; helping with asthma, bronchitis, catarrh and sinusitis.

On the skin it can relieve the itching of pruritus and helps with acne, dermatitis, congested skin and sore gums. For female health it can help to stem the flow of heavy periods and leucorrhoea and releases urine retention.

Chemical Constituents: a-pinene, b-pinene, carvone, 1,8-cineole, linalool, limonene, myrcene, caryophyllene and menthol (0.5% compared to the 40% in peppermint)

Companion Oils: Basil, lavender, peppermint, jasmine, eucalyptus, rosemary CT cineol

Precautions: It is considered a nontoxic, non-irritant and non-sensitizing oil.

Science and Research


Spike Lavender (Lavandula Latifolia)

  • Color: Clear
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top/Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Floral, fresh, sweet and herbaceous. Much more camphorous in aroma than other lavender oils.

Action: Bactericidal, antiviral, cytophylactic, decongestant, expectorant, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, balancing, analgesic, antiseptic, antirheumatic, calming, relaxant.

Benefits, Indications: Used for abscesses, acne, allergies, athlete’s foot, boils, bruises, burns, dandruff, dermatitis, earache, eczema, inflammation, insect bites, insect repellent, lice, ringworm, sunburns, wounds, lumbago, muscular aches and pains, rheumatism, sprains, asthma, bronchitis, halitosis, throat infections, abdominal cramps, colic, flatulence, flu, depression, headache, insomnia, migraine, nervous tension and shock.

More Info: Spike Lavender boasts usage applications similar to traditional Lavender. However, it’s highter percentage of camphor gives it stronger analgesic and expectorant properties. This makes it a better choice for headache pain or as an expectorant in direct application or a diffuser.

Properly diluted for topical use, spike lavender can be used to help ease aches, pains or the discomfort associated with arthritis. It is also reported to be effective in repelling insects.

Chemical Constituents: Linalool, 1,8-cineole, camphor, borneol, b-pinene

Companion Oils: Cedarwood, clary sage, clove, eucalyptus, lavender, oakmoss, patchouli, petitgrain, pine, rosemary, sage

Precautions: Due to its camphor content of up to 25%, Spike Lavender Essential Oil should be used with care. Avoid while pregnant. May cause skin irritation.

Science and Research


Spikenard (Nardostachys Jatamansi)

  • Color: Golden Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Medium
  • Perfumery Note: Base
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium – Strong
  • Scent: Earthy, woody, harsh, musty.

Action: Antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, deodorant, relaxant, skin tonic, antipyretic, antiseptic, calmative, sedative, laxative, tonic.

Benefits, Indications: Known for helping in the treatment of allergic skin reactions. May also help with allergies, candida, dyspepsia, insomnia, menstrual difficulties, migraine, nausea, rashes, bacterial infections, stress, tachycardia, tension and wounds that will not heal. Strengthens the heart and circulatory system.

Spikenard oil can be effective for tension, stress, migraine, nervous dyspepsia and insomnia. It seems to have rejuvenating qualities especially for the mature skin, and can help with allergies, skin inflammation and rashes.

Chemical Constituents: Bornyl acetate, valeranone, jonon, tetramenthyloxatricylodecanol, menthylthymyl-ether, 1,8-cineol

Companion Oils: Cistus, lavender, patchouli, pine, vetiver

Precautions: No known contraindications, but care should be taken as with all oils.

Science and Research


Spruce (Picea Mariana)

  • Additional Name(s): Black Spruce
  • Color: Clear
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Fresh, woody, earthy, sweet, with a hint of a fruity note.

Action: Antispasmodic, anti-infectious, antiparasitic, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, hormone-like, cortisone-like, general tonic, stimulates thymus, antibacterial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, disinfectant, expectorant

Benefits, Indications: Arthritis, candida, hyperthyroidism, immune-depression, prostatitis, rheumatism. May be beneficial for bone pain, glandular imbalances, aching joints, sciatica pain. May help support the nervous and respiratory systems, can be stimulating to the pineal, thymus and adrenal glands.

Stimulating and fortifying the immune system, controlling some cases of hyperthyroidism, regulating the adrenal hormone to help the body deal with stress and “fight-or-flight” situations. Relieves respiratory tract infections like asthma or bronchitis, working as an expectorant to relieve mucus.

It fights off fatigue, including nervous exhaustion and chronic fatigue and soothes skin conditions, such as dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis, and seborrhea dermatitis, calming skin outbreaks triggered by hormonal imbalance or stress. It combats fungal infections like candidiasis, athlete’s foot, facial candida, jock itch, and fingernail fungi.

Chemical Constituents: Pinenes, limonene, bornyl acetate, tricyclene, phellandrene, myrcrene, thujone, dipentene, cadinene

Companion Oils: Amyris, benzoin, cedarwood, clary sage, galbanum, lavender, oakmoss, pine, rosemary, ravensara

Precautions: No known contraindications, but care should be taken as with all oils.

Star Anise (Illicium Verum)

  • Additional Name(s): Aniseed, Anis Seed
  • Color: Pale Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Sharp, anise and licorice-like aroma.

Action: Antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, diuretic, expectorant, galactagogue, stimulant, stomachic

Benefits, Indications: Used in menopause to ease symptoms especially for hot flashes. Used for colitis spasms, flatulence, burping. Good for Post Traumatic Syndrome – memories are softened and easier to deal with, stabilizes trauma. Used in the treatment of muscle aches and pains, rheumatism and arthritis.

It is also aids bronchitis and coughs as well as digestive conditions such as colic, cramps, dyspepsia and colds.

Chemical Constituents: A-pinene (0.17%), camphene (0.07%), b-pinene (0.01%), linalool (0.18%), cis-anethole (2.29%), trans-anethole (85%), safrole (0.58%), anisaldehyde (0.91%), acetoanisole (0.94%)

Companion Oils: Bay, cedarwood, eucalyptus, dill, fennel, ginger, mandarin, petitgrain, peppermint, rosemary, spearmint

Precautions: The major constituent of aniseed oil, trans-anethole, is known to cause dermatitis in some individuals, so avoid in allergic and inflammatory skin conditions. Also, due to the estrogen-like action of trans-anethole one should avoid aniseed oil during pregnancy and with endometriosis or estrogen-dependent cancers.

Science and Research


Swamp Paperbark (Melaleuca Ericifolia)

  • Additional Name(s): Rosalina, Lavender Tea Tree
  • Color: clear to very pale golden
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Lemony, almost buttery, camphoraceous, warm.

Action: Analgesic, anti-anxiety, antibacterial, antifungal, antihistamine, Anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiviral, calmative, CNS tonic, disinfectant, immunostimulant, mucolytic, tonic

Benefits, Indications: Rosalina essential oil can be used as a wonderful substitute and sometimes an addition to Tea Tree essential oil. It is an excellent oil for upper respiratory tract congestion and infection, particularly useful with small children. It is a gentle expectorant with anti-infectious properties. This essential oil is extremely gentle on the mucous membranes.as well as the skin.

Rosalina essential oil has been effective in treating acne, boils, tinea and herpes. It can be used effectively in a diffuser for respiratory congestion as well as for insomnia as it is so sedative. The oil may also be useful for cases of acne, particularly where the user may not be so fond of more medicinal aromas. It can be applied ‘neat’ in these cases, or diluted.

Chemical Constituents: Linalol (43.51%), a-pinene (15.06%), 1,8 cineole (13.53%), d-limonene (6.75%)

Companion Oils: All citrus oils, cypress, eucalyptus radiata, lavender, rosemary CT cineol, thyme

Precautions: No known contraindications, but care should be taken as with all oils.

Science and Research


Sweet Orange (Citrus Sinensis)

  • Color: Greenish Orange
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium – Strong
  • Scent: Citrusy, sweet, reminiscent of orange peels, but more concentrated.

Action: Antiseptic, antidepressant, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, carminative, diuretic, cholagogue, sedative, tonic

Benefits, Indications: It is a sunny and radiant oil, bringing happiness and warmth to the mind and helps people to relax and helps children to sleep at night. Sweet orange oil can be used effectively on the immune system, as well as for colds and flu and to eliminate toxins from the body.

It is a good diuretic and is most useful in balancing water retention and obesity. Its lymphatic stimulant action further helps to balance water processes, detoxification, aiding the immune system and general well-being. For the digestive system, orange oil can help with constipation, dyspepsia and as a general tonic. It is also useful in cases of nervous tension and stress.

Chemical Constituents: A-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, limonene, linalool, citronellal, neral, geranial

Companion Oils: Black pepper, cinnamon, cloves, ginger, frankincense, sandalwood, vetiver

Precautions: It is a safe nontoxic, non-irritant and non-sensitizing oil, yet care must be taken with it since it can have a phototoxic effect. It should therefore preferably not be applied before going out into sunlight for prolonged periods.

Science and Research


A B C D E F G H J K L M N O P R S T V W Y

-T-

Tagetes (Tagetes Minuta)

  • Color: Gold
  • Oil Consistency: Thin – Medium
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Fresh, sweet, floral, slightly fruity.

Action: Anti-infectious, antimicrobial, antibiotic, antispasmodic, antiparasitic, antiseptic, insecticidal, sedative

Benefits, Indications: Tagetes oil is valuable in keeping insects at bay, and can help with parasitic and fungal infestation. It is used for chest infections, coughs and catarrh, dilating the bronchi, facilitating the flow of mucus and dislodging congestion and can be used in cases of skin infections. It has a healing effect on wounds, cuts, calluses and bunions.

Chemical Constituents: Tagetone, limonene, valeric acid and ocimene

Companion Oils: Clary sage, jasmine, lavender, lemon, myrrh, tangerine

Precautions: Tagetes oil is a very powerful oil and should be used sparingly and should be avoided during pregnancy. Not to be used on a sensitive skin and may cause photosensitivity. Cases of dermatitis have been reported.

Science and Research


Tangerine (Citrus Nobilis)

  • Color: Greenish Orange
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Fresh, sweet, citrusy, similar to the brighter aroma of tangerine peels (as compared to orange peels), but more concentrated.

Action: Antiseptic, antispasmodic, cytophylactic, depurative, sedative, stomachic, tonic

Benefits, Indications: May help dissolve cellulite, improve circulation and help digestive system disorders, dizziness, anxiety, insomnia, irritability, liver problems, parasites, stretch marks (smooths when blended with lavender), and fluid retention.

Tangerine oil is soothing to the nervous system and has a tonic effect on the digestive system, while helping flatulence, diarrhea and constipation. It is also useful for the skin and is used to help with stretch marks, and increasing circulation.

Chemical Constituents: A-thujone, a-pinene, camphene, sabinene, b-pinene, myrcene, limonene, y-terpinolene, linalool, citronellal, terpineol-4-ol, nerol, geranial

Companion Oils: Basil, bergamot, german chamomile, clary sage, frankincense, geranium, grapefruit, lavender, lemon, orange

Precautions: It is a nontoxic, non-irritant and non-sensitizing oil, but some phototoxicity has been reported and it would be best to not expose the skin to sunlight after a treatment.

Science and Research


Tansy (Tanacetum Vulgare)

  • Color: Yellow to dark orange
  • Oil Consistency: Thick
  • Perfumery Note: Base
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Warm, spicy-herbaceous.

Action: Analgesic, antitumoral, believed to help stop bleeding, immunostimulant, anticatarrhal, anthelmintic, expectorant, mucolytic, carminative, nervine, stimulant, tonic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antihistamine, antiviral, febrifuge, insecticidal, hormone sedative, vermifuge

Benefits, Indications: Respiratory infections, stomach conditions, arthritis, irritable bowel syndrome, aneurysm, bruises, diarrhea, freckles, gout. Used for congestion, to repel insects and fleas, intestinal worms. It is also used for painful conditions including migraines, nerve pain (neuralgia), joint pain, and sciatica; and for heart conditions including palpitations and fluid retention caused by congestive heart failure.

Chemical Constituents: Thujone, isopinocamphone, camphor, borneol, camphone, artemisone and piperitone

Companion Oils: Wintergreen/birch, clary sage, elemi, hyssop, myrtle, pine, valerian, vetiver

Precautions: Oral toxin, hazardous, irritant, sensitizer, neurotoxin, abortifacient, avoid in epilepsy. It should not be used in aromatherapy as it can cause convulsions and epileptic-like attacks, and even small doses can be lethal.

Science and Research


Tarragon (Artemisia Dracunculus)

  • Color: Clear to pale yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Sweet-anisic, spicy-green.

Action: Neuromuscular antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, anti-infectious, antifermentation, antirheumatic, aperitif, digestive, deodorant, emmenagogue, stimulant, vermifuge

Benefits, Indications: Colitis, hiccups, intestinal spasms, parasites, rheumatic pain, sciatica. May be beneficial for abdominal discomfort and spasms, arthritis, digestive complaints, genital and urinary tract infection, nausea, premenstrual discomfort, wounds. It may also balance the autonomic nervous system.

Tarragon oil stimulates the appetite and has a pronounced effect on the sluggish digestive system. It can be helpful for anorexia, dyspepsia, flatulence, hiccups, internal spasm and nervous dyspepsia, as well as helpful for menstrual pains and to regulate periods.

Chemical Constituents: Estragole (methyl chavicol), ocimene and phellandrene, cineol

Companion Oils: German chamomile, clary sage, balsam fir, juniper, lavender, pine, rosewood, orange, tangerine, basil, cistus, galbanum, oakmoss, pine, vanilla

Precautions: Tarragon oil is non-irritant and non-sensitizing but can be moderately toxic due to the methyl chavicol in the oil, and should therefore be used in moderation and should be avoided during pregnancy. Do not use if epileptic.

Science and Research


Tea Tree (Melaleuca Alternifolia)

  • Color: Clear with a Yellow Tinge
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Medicinal, fresh, woody, earthy, herbaceous.

Action: Anti-infectious, antibacterial (large spectrum action of gram positive and gram negative bacteria), antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant, cardiotonic, decongestant of the veins, reduces phlebitis, neurotonic, analgesic, protects against radiation, antimicrobial, balsamic, bactericidal, cicatrisant, expectorant, fungicide, insecticidal, stimulant, sudorific.

Benefits, Indications: Athlete’s foot, fungal infections, bronchitis, respiratory infections, gum disease, rash, sore throat, sunburn, tonsillitis, vaginal thrush. May help acne, burns, candida, cold sores, inflammation, viral infections, ingrown nails, warts and wounds (promotes healing).

More Info: Tea tree oil is very important in the health of the immune system, as it acts as a immunostimulant and increases the body’s ability to fight off any infections, while it also is used to revive the mind and body after shock. All over the world, this oil is used with great effectiveness to ward of infections of any kind, and it is active in all three varieties of infectious organisms: bacteria, fungi and viruses.

It can help with influenza, cold sores, catarrh, glandular fever and gingivitis. Apart from the superb anti-infectious properties of tea tree oil, it is also most effective to help clear bronchial congestion, asthma, coughs, sinusitis, whooping cough and tuberculosis.

On the genito-urinary system, it can be used to help clear vaginal thrush, cystitis and genital infections in general. On the skin, it clears abscesses, acne, burns, herpes, oily skin, athlete’s foot, cold sores, blemishes, diaper rash, warts, sunburn and infected wounds, while fighting dandruff on the scalp.

Supplemental Information:

Chemical Constituents: A-pinene, b-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, a-phellandrene, a-terpinene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, y-terpinene, p-cymene, terpinolene, linalool, terpinen-4-ol and a-terpineol

Companion Oils: All citrus oils, cypress, eucalyptus radiata, lavender, rosemary CT cineol, thyme, cinnamon, clary sage, clove, geranium, myrrh, nutmeg, rosewood

Precautions: Tea tree oil is considered a safe oil, as it is nontoxic and non-irritant, but some individuals so show sensitizing to this oil, and it should be used with this in mind.

Science and Research


Thuja (Thuja Occidentalis)

  • Additional Name(s): Cedar Leaf
  • Color: colorless to pale yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Intensely sharp and fresh with a woody camphorous scent.

Action: Antirheumatic, anthelmintic, antiviral, astringent, cicatrisant, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, hemostatic, hypotensive, insect repellent, parasiticide for skin, rubefacient, nerve stimulant, sudorific, tonic, vermifuge.

Benefits, Indications: First and foremost, it is a detoxifier by virtue of the diuretic properties that it possesses. Due to its diuretic property, it increases urination and thus speeds up the removal of the toxic and unwanted substances in the body such as excess water, salts and uric acid through the urine.

Being a stimulant, it stimulates the flow of blood and lymph, otherwise known as an improvement of circulation. It gives women relief from obstructed menses as well as from the abdominal pain, cramps, nausea, and fatigue associated with periods.

It also makes periods regular and keeps the female reproductive organs in good health by promoting the secretion of certain hormones like estrogen and progesterone. It gives you a clear, decongested chest, helps you breathe easily, clears out mucus and phlegm, and gives relief from coughs.

It can eliminate worms like round worms, tape worms and hook worms that can result in a number of uncomfortable and dangerous health conditions.

Chemical Constituents: A-thujone, b-thujone, a-pinene, camphene, d-sabinene, fenchone, camphone, terpinen-4-ol, bornyl acetate

Companion Oils: Cedarwood, lemon, lavender, pine

Precautions: Thuja oil should not be used in aromatherapy and it may cause an abortion by reflex uterine contractions. Due to the presence of thujone in this oil, please consult a physician prior to using it.

Science and Research


Thyme (Thymus Vulgaris CT Thymol)

  • Color: Reddish Brown
  • Oil Consistency: Medium and Slightly Oily
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium – Strong
  • Scent: Fresh, medicinal, herbaceous.

Action: Highly antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, uterine tonic, cardiotonic, antirheumatic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, bactericidal, bechic, cardiotonic, carminative, cicatrisant, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, hypertensive, insecticidal, stimulant, tonic, vermifuge.

Benefits, Indications: Asthma, bronchitis, colitis, cystitis, dermatitis, anthrax, fatigue (general), pleurisy, psoriasis, sciatica, tuberculosis, vaginal candida. A general tonic for nerves and stomach.

It may also help with bacterial infections, respiratory infections, circulation, depression, digestion, headaches, insomnia, rheumatism, urinary infections, viruses along the spine.

More Info: Thyme oil strengthens the nerves, aids memory and concentration, can help with the feeling of exhaustion and combats depression, while it fortifies the lungs and helps with colds, coughs, asthma, laryngitis, sinusitis, catarrh, whooping cough, sore throats and tonsillitis.

Thyme oil is beneficial to boost the immune system and can help fight colds, flu, infectious diseases and chills and as a urinary antiseptic, it is very helpful for cystitis and urethritis.

The warming effect of this oil can help in cases of poor circulation, as well as for arthritis, rheumatism, gout, muscular aches and pains, sprains and sport injuries. It is also helpful for cellulite, anorexia, obesity and edema and in cases of scanty periods, leucorrhoea, and to speed up birth and to expel afterbirth.

Chemical Constituents: A-thujone, a-pinene, camphene, b-pinene, p-cymene, a-terpinene, linalool, borneol, b-caryophyllene, thymol, carvacrol

Companion Oils: Bergamot, citrus oils, cedarwood, juniper, tea tree, oregano, rosemary CT cineol

Precautions: It is a very potent oil and should not be used during pregnancy or in cases of high blood pressure. Because of the phenols (carvacrol and thymol), which can irritate mucus membranes and cause skin irritation, it should not be used for skin care products, and in general should be used in low concentrations.

Science and Research


Tobacco Absolute (Nicotiana Tabacum)

  • Color: Deep Brown
  • Oil Consistency: Medium – Thick
  • Perfumery Note: Base
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Rich, warm, earthy, tobacco-like aroma.

Action: Calmative, relaxant, aphrodisiac, antibiotic, antioxidant, disinfectant.

Benefits, Indications: Used in various skin care products such as talcum powder, creams, gels, ointments and in many other products. and as a flavor in the tobacco industry. Tobacco (absolute) can be used with a stop smoking program. Instead of smoking a cigarette, smelling the Tobacco Oil four times through each nostril will help stop the craving.

There are trace amounts of nicotine in this oil. Tobacco Absolute is highly effective in alleviating mental stress, dullness, stress, emotional disturbance, annoyance etc by calming mind, body and soul.

It is also helpful in driving away negative thoughts by invoking a feeling of joy and happiness. Due to its aphrodisiac property, it is highly effective in treating various sex related problems such as lack of sexual interest, temporary impotency, frigidity, erectile dysfunctions and many other problems.

In addition, its scent creates an erotic ambiance for romance. Tobacco absolute works well on several skin problems such as acne, wrinkles, pimples, blemishes and scars. Use of the oil is experimental so one must use with caution. This oil is still under study.

Chemical Constituents: Trace nicotine in the absolute, phenols, fuajacol, furfurol, ketones, solanesol

Companion Oils: Sandalwood, labdanum, clary sage, vetiver, bergamot, cedarwood, jasmine, tuberose, ylang ylang

Precautions: Can be toxic if ingested – do not use undiluted on skin. Do not use on babies, children, or the elderly. Using tobacco absolute topically in low dilutions may be prudent.

Tsuga (Tsuga Canadensis)

  • Additional Name(s): Eastern Hemlock, White Hemlock, Spruce Hemlock, Canadian Spruce
  • Color: pale yellow or almost colorless
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Pleasant balsamic scent that is sweet with fruity tones.

Action: Analgesic, antirheumatic, astringent, blood cleanser, stimulant, antibacterial, antifungal, Anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antispasmodic, antiviral, decongestant, expectorant, mucolytic.

Benefits, Indications: Treats coughs, respiratory conditions, kidney ailments, skin conditions, urinary infections, venereal diseases. Recommended for relief of stress and anxiety. Also recommended for muscle aches and pains, aching joints, poor circulation. Inhaled for the respiratory system, helpful for bronchitis or asthma. Can be used in coughs, colds, flu, infection, muscle spasms, poor circulation, and respiratory weakness.

Tsuga essential oil obtained from hemlock spruce trees appears to display anti-cancer activity as found out in a study. In 2003, scientists at the Brigham University observed that a concentration of as little as 0.02% of Tsuga essential oil (derived from the Canadian hemlock tree) is effective to check the spread of cancer cells at breast and cervical metastatic sites.

It is also credited with being a spiritual oil – stabilizing while opening. In addition it’s uplifting to the emotions and many have found it beneficial for yoga and meditation.

Chemical Constituents: Terpene, pinene, limonene, bornyl acetate, tricyclene, phellandrene, myrcrene

Companion Oils: Pine, cedarwood, galbanum, benzoin, lavender, rosemary

Precautions: Spruce should be avoided during pregnancy. At low doses it appears to be nontoxic, non-irritating, and non-sensitizing. Not for use with children under six and use greater dilution in children over six.

Tuberose (Polianthes Tuberosa)

  • Color: Deep orange/Golden brown
  • Oil Consistency: Medium
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Complex, exotic, sweet, floral.

Action: Perfume, aphrodisiac, deodorant, relaxant, sedative, warming, antiseptic

Benefits, Indications: Tuberose oil is also known by its romantic and sensual names “Night Queen” and “Mistress of the Night”. It behaves as an aphrodisiac and its very strong, intense and intoxicating floral fragrance fills the air and creates an atmosphere of love.

It also relaxes the mind and relieves tension and has a warming effect on the organs as it increases circulation of blood which in turn helps cure erectile dysfunctions, impotency etc. Tuberose is world famous for its use in perfumes and the rich, intense and long-lasting floral fragrance is an ideal choice for a deodorant, which is why it is so popular in countries with a hot and humid climate.

This essential oil is good in sedating inflammation, particularly pertaining to the nervous and respiratory systema. But to have this sedating effect, it should be used in good dilution. In addition to the benefits described above, this essential oil can also be used to keep the skin free of infections and cracks, to counter nausea, and to reduce the tendency of vomiting and effects of foul smells in certain areas.

Chemical Constituents: Menthyl benzoate, menthyl anthranilate, benzyl alcohol, butyric acid, eugenol, nerol, farnesol, geraniol

Companion Oils: Bergamot, clary sage, frankincense, geranium, lavender, mandarin, neroli, orange, patchouli, rose, sandalwood, vetiver

Precautions: Tuberose oil is not normally used in aromatherapy but in the perfume industry as a component of good quality perfumes and is said to have narcotic properties, although proper safety data is not available.

A B C D E F G H J K L M N O P R S T V W Y

-V-

Valerian (Valeriana Officinalis)

  • Color: Light brown to reddish brown
  • Oil Consistency: Medium
  • Perfumery Note: Base
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Warm-woody, balsamic, musky.

Action: Sedative, nervine, antispasmodic, analgesic, antiseptic, anticonvulsant.

Benefits, Indications: Because of its effect on the nervous system, it may help with insomnia, nervous dyspepsia, migraine, restlessness and tension. It is calming without exerting too sedative an effect and is practically non-addictive. It is a valuable treatment for insomnia, the sedative effect due to the valepotriates and the isovaleric acid.

At least two double-blind studies have demonstrated that valerian extract can significantly reduce the amount of time it takes people to fall asleep without changing the normal stages of sleep.

Documented research has noted a mild hypnotic action in both normal sleepers and insomniacs, indicated by a beneficial effect on sleep latency, wake-time after sleep, frequency of waking, nocturnal motor activity, inner restlessness and tension and quality of sleep. Sleepiness and dream recall the morning after were unaffected.

The valepotriates have a regulatory effect on the autonomic nervous system; research suggests that they have a calming effect on agitated people but are also a stimulant in cases of fatigue. It helps relieve dysmenorrhea and it can be of benefit in migraine and rheumatic pain. It may also be applied locally as a treatment for cramps and other muscle tensions.

Chemical Constituents: Acetic acid, ascorbic acid, beta-ionone, calcium, caffeic acid, magnesium, manganese, quercitin, valeric acid

Companion Oils: Cedarwood, lavender, mandarin, oakmoss, patchouli, petitgrain, pine, rosemary

Precautions: Possible contact sensitization from repeated use.

Science and Research


Vanilla (Vanilla Planifolia)

  • Color: Deep Brown
  • Oil Consistency: Thick
  • Perfumery Note: Base
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Rich, warm, sweet vanilla aroma.

Action: Antispasmodic, balsamic, calmative, emmenagogue, antioxidant, antidepressant, aphrodisiac, anticarcinogenic, tranquilizer, relaxant, analgesic, antibacterial, anticonvulsive, antidiuretic, antipyretic, carminative, diuretic, febrifuge, hepatic, hypotensor, nervine, sedative, stomachic, tonic (nerves), vermifuge.

Benefits, Indications: Perfumery and enhancing the fragrance of aromatherapy and natural skin/hair care formulations. The medicinal potential of vanilla has been the subject of extensive scientific study over the past two decades. Studies have demonstrated that vanillin, the primary compound in vanilla, has anti-carcinogenic properties.

More specifically, reports show that vanillin eradicates human cancer cells limits movement of cancer cells from the original site to other parts of the body.

Vanilla essential oil has proved to be an effective mood lifter, courtesy of its rich, yet unobtrusive scent. Vanillin-rich oil also works in the bedroom as an aphrodisiac, where scientific studies have confirmed that vanilla oil cures patients suffering from impotency, libido loss, sexual frigidity, and erectile dysfunction. The oil works to stimulate secretions of human hormones to help promote arousal.

Chemical Constituents: Vanillin, hydroxybenzaldehyde, acetic acid, isobutyric acid, caproic acid, eugenol, furfural

Companion Oils: Orange, lemon, neroli, jojoba, chamomile, lavender, sandalwood

Precautions: It is a nontoxic oil, but is not normally used in aromatherapy.

Vetiver (Vetiveria Zizanioides)

  • Color: Golden/Dark Brown
  • Oil Consistency: Thick
  • Perfumery Note: Base
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Woody, earthy, herbaceous, spicy almost smoky.

Action: Antiseptic, antispasmodic, calmative, grounding, rubefacient, sedative (to the nervous system), stimulant (circulatory, production of red corpuscles), aphrodisiac, cicatrisant, nervine, tonic, vulnerary.

Benefits, Indications: May help acne, anxiety, arthritis, cuts, depression (including postpartum), insomnia, rheumatism, stress, skin care (oily, aging, irritated). Vetiver oil calms and soothes the mind and helps to dispel anger, hysteria and irritability and neurotic behavior can also be reduced as stress and tension is reduced.

It revitalizes the body and helps with mental and physical exhaustion and is also used for general aches and pains, especially for rheumatism, arthritis and muscular pain, while relieving insomnia.

Chemical Constituents: Benzoic acid, vetiverol, furfurol, a and b-vetivone, vetivene, vetivenyl vetivenate

Companion Oils: Clary sage, jasmine, lavender, patchouli, rose, sandalwood, ylang ylang

Precautions: It is considered a safe oil and is nontoxic, non-irritant and non-sensitizing.

Science and Research


Violet Leaf (Viola Odorata)

  • Color: Dark Green
  • Oil Consistency: Thick
  • Perfumery Note: Middle – Base
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Green, earthy, slightly floral in dilution.

Action: Antiseptic, antifungal, astringent, anti-inflammatory, nervine, aperient, analgesic, expectorant, bronchodilator, diuretic, diaphoretic, vasodilatory, hypotensive, antioxidant, febrifuge.

Benefits, Indications: Irritating coughs, bronchitis, asthma, whooping cough, chest infections, tonsillitis, swollen glands, catarrh, sinus congestion, colds, fevers, insomnia, liver problems, constipation, headaches, migraines, arthritis, tension, anxiety, aid to cancer treatment (breast, lungs, throat, intestines, lymph, skin), abscesses, boils, obesity, breast lumps, fibroids, urinary tract infections, stones and gravel.

More Info: Violet oil can be used to treat swellings and bruises as it is soothing and cooling. In aromatherapy skin care it makes an excellent moisturizer and emollient, which also gently tightens pores and thread veins. It is indicated for acne, eczema and dermatitis.

Violet can also be used to stimulate circulation and aids fibrosis and rheumatism. Grieves reports anti-cancer and antitumor activity of the leaves. This may prove a very interesting and promising area of research.

Chemical Constituents: Glycosides (gaultherin, salicylic acid, methyl ester), mucilage, phenolics, coumarins, saponins (myrosin, violin), flavonoids (rutin, violarutin), odoratine, minerals (calcium, magnesium), tannins, volatile oils, alkaloid, vitamin C

Companion Oils: Clary Sage, hyacinth, lavender, benzoin, rose, immortelle, mimosa

Precautions: Generally considered to be nontoxic and a non-irritant with the possibility of sensitization in certain individuals.

Science and Research


Virginia Cedarwood (Juniperus Virginiana)

  • Color: Clear
  • Oil Consistency: Medium and oily feeling
  • Perfumery Note: Base
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Fresh, woody, balsamic. It strongly resembles the aroma of cedar chests and closets.

Action: Antiseborrheic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, tonic, astringent, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, insecticidal, sedative, fungicide.

Benefits, Indications: In aromatherapy, virginian cedarwood essential oil is used to treat muscular aches and pains, painful joints, rheumatism and arthritis. Although milder in action than juniper berry, it still has an influence on the kidneys and bladder, and creates an effective synergy when they are all blended together for use in the bath or for massage.

Its astringent and antiseptic properties are ideal for treating acne and oily skin conditions as well as coughs and colds.

Cedarwood oil benefits the skin by its sedating ability which relieves itching. Its astringent action is great for acne, oily skin, as well as for hair and dandruff. It helps with chest and urinary infections, acts as a general tonic and has a pronounced effect on mucus membranes. It has a calming and soothing effect on the mind and is of great help in conditions associated with anxiety and nervous tension.

It is also of value in cases of arthritis and rheumatism.

Chemical Constituents: A-cedrene, b-cedrene, thujopsene, other sesquiterpenes, cedrol, widdrol

Companion Oils: Bergamot, clary sage, cypress, juniper, frankincense, neroli, petitgrain, rose, jasmine, oakmoss, rosemary, sandalwood, vetiver, ylang ylang, patchouli, benzoin

Precautions: Generally considered nontoxic, non-irritating and non-sensitizing, it should be avoided during pregnancy and with those who have epilepsy.

Science and Research


Vitex (Vitex Negundo)

Action: Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antihistamine, antioxidant, sedative, anticonvulsive, hepatoprotective, antihyperglycemic, antifungal, antiviral, antibacterial, insecticidal, insect repellent, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, vermifuge, anti-allergenic.

Benefits, Indications: Extensively researched in Europe for its effects on Parkinson’s Disease and other neurological disorders. With the actions listed above, it is an obvious choice for an anti-infectious oil for various bacterial and viral ailments.

Chemical Constituents: Guaiene; guaia-3,7-dienecaryophyllene epoxide; ethyl-hexadecenoate; α-selinene; germacren-4-ol; caryophyllene epoxide; (E)-nerolidol; β-selinene; α-cedrene; germacrene D; hexadecanoic acid; p-cymene and valencene.

Precautions: Should be used with caution with the concurrent use of psychotropic drugs, including analgesics, sedatives, antidepressants, anticonvulsants and antipsychotics. Vitex negundo Linn. is quite similar botanically to the better studied Vitex agnus castus, and thus may have a similar range of contraindications, including the concurrent use of progesterogenic drugs and hormone replacement therapies.

Science and Research


A B C D E F G H J K L M N O P R S T V W Y

-W-

Western Red Cedar (Thuja Plicata)

  • Additional Name(s): Arborvitae
  • Color: Clear or Pale Yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Sharp, fresh, camphorous.

Action: Antifungal, antibacterial, antiparasitic, aphrodisiac, stimulant, hair follicle stimulator, insect repellent, antirheumatic.

Benefits, Indications: Used traditional by Native Americans to help them enter a higher spiritual realm. Used to stimulate the scalp and as an antimicrobial and antiseptic agent. It is an ingredient of cold-remedy salves used to clear the nose and chest. Used for its disinfectant properties in pharmaceutical products.

Protects against environmental and seasonal threats. Promotes healthy cell function. Powerful cleansing and purifying agent. Natural insect repellent and wood preservative.

Chemical Constituents: A-pinene, borneol, bornyl acetate, d-thujone, fenchone, fenone

Companion Oils: Black pepper, cedarwood, citrus oils, ginger, sandalwood, bergamot

Precautions: Avoid while pregnant. May cause skin irritation. Not for internal use.

Science and Research


West Indian Bay (Pimenta Racemosa)

  • Additional Name(s): Aura Cacia, Bay Rum, Bay West Indies
  • Color: Deep, Dark Yellow to Amber Brown
  • Oil Consistency: Thin to Medium
  • Perfumery Note: Top to Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium to Strong
  • Scent: Medicinal, fruity, spicy, herbaceous aroma.

Action: Analgesic, anticonvulsant, antineuralgic, antiseptic, astringent, stimulant, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, insecticidal

Benefits, Indications: Used for dandruff, greasy hair, muscular aches and pains, neuralgia, poor circulation, rheumatism, sprains, strains, colds, flu, infectious disease. It helps in the reduction of cellulite. Used to warm, stimulate the scalp, improve circulation, stimulate digestion, reduce stress.

In the emotional sphere bay oil, one of the most powerful tonic essential oils, may help to eliminate depression symptoms and the complex consequences of prolonged fatigue.

This oil warms, calms after unpleasant events and eliminates despondency. West Indian Bay may also help to cope with the pain, loss and grief. It is purported to be an excellent natural antidepressant, and blood pressure stabilizer.

This essential oil is also one of the best antimicrobial essential oils, according to a study that compared the antibacterial and anti-fungal properties of more than 52 essential and carrier oils. The study showed West Indian bay oil inhibited drug-resistant microbes at concentrations lower than 2%.

Chemical Constituents: Eugenol (about 55%), chavicol, myrcene, cineol, methyl eugenol, linalol, limonene

Companion Oils: Bergamot, black pepper, cardamom, cinnamon, clove, coriander, frankincense, geranium, ginger, lavender, grapefruit, lemon, mandarin, nutmeg, orange, petitgrain, rosemary, sandalwood, ylang ylang

Precautions: Not for internal use. Avoid while pregnant. Avoid Bay Oil in alcoholism, in hemophilia, in prostatic cancer, with kidney and liver problems and if taking anticoagulants.

Science and Research


White Fir (Abies Concolor)

  • Color: Clear – Yellowish
  • Oil Consistency: Thin, oily
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Very fresh, clean, clear.

Action: Antitumoral, anticancerous, antifungal, antioxidant, analgesic, sedative, antispasmodic, decongestant, expectorant, anti-inflammatory, anti-infectious, mucolytic, tonic.

Benefits, Indications: Can be diluted and applied topically for bone and ligament pain. White Fir essential oil is an excellent choice in seasonal allergy, cold, and flu blends. Relaxing, uplifting, emotionally calming, and strengthening.

Like many evergreens, it’s an excellent choice when want to clear your energy, reinvigorate your purpose, and build your self-confidence to stand tall and firm even in cold, dark times (like the evergreens).

Chemical Constituents: Terpinolene, myrcene, limonene, gallic acid

Companion Oils: Silver fir, frankincense, all citrus oils, vetiver, spikenard, marjoram, lavender, eucalyptus

Precautions: Possible skin irritant. Not recommended for individuals suffering from consistent respiratory compromise such as asthma.

White Lotus Absolute (Nymphea Alba / Nelumbo Nucifera)

  • Color: Very Dark, Orange-Red
  • Oil Consistency: Thick
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: A honeyed, very intense floral; earthy and somewhat sweet with ripe-fruit and coumarin-like undertones.

Action: Perfume, aphrodisiac, deodorant, relaxing, calming, antiseptic, carminative, emmenagogue, expectorant, stimulant, stomachic, skin care, antidepressant, liver tonic, and provides a feeling of serenity & tranquility.

Benefits, Indications: White Lotus pure essential oil is known in aromatherapy for its wonderful ability to flush away anger and negative presences. Because this oil possess such strong properties that expel harsh energies, it makes for a great oil to use, when trying to relax and meditate. It is less pungent and floral than Pink Lotus, but has a clarity and smoothness of its own.

It has a mix of subtle aroma with powerful emotional and spiritual effect that provides a feeling of serenity and tranquility. Wonderful meditation oil, it is also associated with crown chakra and help in connecting the mind and the heart. It is used to treat weak sexual function in men and leucorrhea in women. It is helpful in heart and liver disorders and an antidote for mushroom poisoning.

Chemical Constituents: Polysaccharids 2.5%, polysaccharids 5%, saponin 5%

Companion Oils: Ambrette, amyris, black pepper, clove, galbanum, grapefruit, jasmine, lime, patchouli, rose, sandalwood, spikenard, vanilla

Precautions: Dilute before using. A patch test should be performed before use for those with sensitive skin.

Science and Research


Wintergreen (Gaultheria Procumbens)

(very similar in chemistry to birch)

  • Additional Name(s): Teaberry, Tea Berry
  • Color: Light yellow or pinkish yellow
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Base
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Strong
  • Scent: Intense sweet-woody.

Action: Antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, liver stimulant, antirheumatic, anti-arthritic, antitussive, astringent, carminative, diuretic, emmenagogue, galactagogue, stimulant.

Benefits, Indications: Arthritis, rheumatism, inflammation, muscular pain, tendonitis, hypertension, cramps. May be beneficial for cystitis, bladder infection, gout, gallstones, edema, eczema, osteoporosis, skin diseases, ulcers, urinary tract disorders.

It contains an active principle similar to cortisone and is beneficial for bone, muscle and joint discomfort. Used for eczema, acne, blemishes, wounds, rheumatism, edema, headaches (liver congestion).

Chemical Constituents: Nearly 98% methyl salicylate, but may also contain triacontane, formaldehyde, gaultheriline and varies other aldehydes, ketones, alcohols

Companion Oils: Basil, birch, cypress, geranium, juniper, lavender, lemongrass, marjoram, peppermint, roman chamomile

Precautions: Do not use if epileptic. Possible skin irritant. Skin test for allergies. Wintergreen should NEVER be ingested, and only used topically in dilutions of 25% or less to limit the transdermal absorption to safe levels. Hazardous, toxic, avoid in pregnancy and with children.

Science and Research


Wormwood (Artemisia Absinthium)

  • Color: Dark green
  • Oil Consistency: Medium
  • Perfumery Note: Base
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Bitter, earthy, warming and stimulating.

Action: Anthelmintic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, choleretic, deodorant, emmenagogue, febrifuge, insect repellent, narcotic, stimulant (digestion), tonic, vermifuge, anti-inflammatory, antiparasitic.

Benefits, Indications: Used for stimulating the digestion, liver and gall bladder, warts, constipation, intestinal parasites. Chemical Constituents: A-thujone, b-thujone, sabinene, myrcene, trans-sabinol, trans- sabinyl acetate, linalyl acetate, geranyl propionate

Companion Oils: Anise, angelica, bergamot, cedarwood, chamomile, black pepper, clary sage, cypress, eucalyptus, geranium, grapefruit, juniper, lavender, lemongrass, mandarin, marjoram, palmarosa, ravensara, rosemary, tansy

Precautions: Wormwood is still considered dangerous as it is labeled a neurotoxin. Care is needed if you use Wormwood and supervision from a certified aromatherapist is advised. Not recommended in Aromatherapy considered dangerous. Can cause nightmares, convulsions, vomiting and brain damage.

Science and Research


A B C D E F G H J K L M N O P R S T V W Y

-Y-

Yarrow (Achillea Millefolium)

  • Color: Dark Blue
  • Oil Consistency: Medium
  • Perfumery Note: Middle
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium – Strong
  • Scent: Sharp, woody, herbaceous.

Action: Anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, carminative, cicatrisant, diaphoretic, digestive, expectorant, hemostatic, hypotensive, stomachic, tonic

Benefits, Indications: Acne, lack of appetite, bladder or kidney weakness, cellulite, respiratory infections, poor digestion, menstrual problems, eczema, gallbladder inflammation, gastritis, gout, poor hair growth, headaches, hemorrhoids, hypertension, liver and menopause problems, neuritis, neuralgia, pelvic and urinary infections, prostatitis, rheumatism, sprains, sunburn, thrombosis, ulcers, vaginitis, varicose veins, wounds.

More Info: Yarrow is a powerful decongestant of the prostate and helps to balance hormones. Yarrow oil can improve circulatory disorders such as varicose veins and hemorrhoids. It helps with irregular menstruation, menopausal problems, cystitis and infection. Yarrow can help with digestive problems such as flatulence, colic, cramp, dyspepsia and constipation.

In the nervous system, it can be used to counter stress-related problems, hypertension and insomnia. The skin can also benefit from yarrow oil as it helps to heal inflamed wounds, rashes, cuts, eczema, scars, and burns and can promote hair growth.

Chemical Constituents: Tricyclene, a-pinene, camphene, b-pinene, sabinene, borneol acetate, 1,8-cineole, y-terpinene, limonene, isoartemisia ketone, borneol, camphor as well as traces of chamazulene – giving the blue color

Companion Oils: Angelica, cedarwood, oak moss, verbena

Precautions: Do not use yarrow oil during pregnancy. Prolonged use may cause headaches and may irritate sensitive skin.

Science and Research


Ylang Ylang (Cananga Odorata var. Genuina)

  • Color: Clear with a Yellow Tinge
  • Oil Consistency: Medium
  • Perfumery Note: Middle/Base
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium – Strong
  • Scent: Fresh, floral, sweet, slightly fruity, fragrant yet delicate.

Action: Antispasmodic, antidepressant, antiseborrheic, antiseptic, aphrodisiac, hypotensive, nervine, sedative

Benefits, Indications: Heart arrhythmias, cardiac problems, high blood pressure, anxiety, impotence, arterial hypertension, depression, mental fatigue, hair loss, labored breathing, insomnia, palpitations, insect bites, tachycardia.

More Info: May help balance male-female energies so one can move closer to being in spiritual attunement and allowing greater focus of thoughts, filtering out the ever-present negative frequencies. It may help lower blood pressure, calm rapid breathing, balance equilibrium, ease frustration, balance heart function, help impotence and intestinal problems, shock and skin problems.

It is used in hair preparations to promote thick, shiny, lustrous hair (it is also reported to help control split ends). Yang-ylang oil has a euphoric and sedative effect on the nervous system and helps with anxiety, tension, shock, fear and panic while the aphrodisiac qualities is useful for impotence and frigidity.

It is particularly useful with rapid breathing and rapid heartbeat, it can also help with reducing high blood pressure and useful for intestinal infections.

Chemical Constituents: Linalool, geranyl acetate, caryophyllene, p-cresyl methyl ether, methyl benzoate, benzyl acetate, benzyl benzoate, other sesquiterpenes

Companion Oils: Bergamot, grapefruit, lavender, sandalwood

Precautions: It is classed as a nontoxic, non-irritant and non-sensitizing oil, yet could cause sensitivity have been reported and excessive use of it can lead to headaches and nausea.

Science and Research


Yuzu (Citrus Junos)

  • Color: Greenish orange
  • Oil Consistency: Thin
  • Perfumery Note: Top
  • Initial Aroma Strength: Medium
  • Scent: Fresh, delightful citrus aroma that resembles a combination of mandarin and grapefruit. Be selective in who you purchase yuzu essential oil from as some producers have been found to pass a citrus oil blend off as the more costly yuzu essential oil.

Action: Analgesic, antibiotic, antifungal, anti-infectious, antiseptic, calmative, diuretic, nervine, sedative, stimulant, tonic.

Benefits, Indications: Used in aromatherapy, we have found that yuzu oil is very similar in action to bergamot, having a refreshing and uplifting effect on the body whilst calming the mind. Also in common with bergamot, this oil has a powerful antibacterial action which makes it effective against colds and flu, which would account for its success and popularity in Japanese folk medicine.

It excels when used with cases of anxiety, stress, burn-out and nervous tension, where it imparts a stabilising, strengthening and energising effect in the traditional holistic way. Yuzu also brings relief to frustration, regret and depressive states, helping to dispel these negative emotions and bring focus to the mind.

Used for cystitis, constipation, cleaning, nervous stomach cramps, neuralgia, convalescence.

Chemical Constituents: Monoterpene. Primarily limonene, myrcene, y-terpinene, linalool

Companion Oils: Basil, benzoin, clary sage, Roman chamomile, cypress, frankincense, geranium, ginger, jasmine, juniper berry, lavender, neroli, patchouli, petitgrain, rose (absolute & otto), sandalwood, vetiver and ylang ylang

Precautions: Limited reliable information exists. As a citrus oil, Yuzu may be phototoxic. Do not use if the area of application will be exposed to sunlight for 24 hours.

Science and Research


Get your herbs and oils at a place you can trust!

Starwest Botanicals not only utilizes their own milling and packaging operations for all organic herbs and bulk spices, they also conduct quality control testing on each and every product in their own laboratory.

With attention like that, you can be sure you will receive only the highest-quality organic herbs, dried herbs, organic spices, therapeutic essential oils and all natural products when you place an order with Starwest Botanicals


Dee Braun on EmailDee Braun on FacebookDee Braun on GoogleDee Braun on InstagramDee Braun on LinkedinDee Braun on PinterestDee Braun on RssDee Braun on StumbleuponDee Braun on TumblrDee Braun on TwitterDee Braun on Youtube
Dee Braun
Dee is an Adv. Certified Aromatherapist, Reiki Master, Adv. Color/Crystal Therapist, Herbalist, Dr. of Reflexology and single mom who is dedicated to helping others any way she can.

One way she chooses to help is by offering information on the benefits and uses of natural health and healing methods for the well-being of both people and pets.
Quantcast