Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death in the world from bacterial infection. It affects approximately 1.8 billion people every year, which is equal to one third of the entire world population.
In the United States, tuberculosis is currently on the decline with a total of 13,293 cases reported in 2007. This is the lowest recorded rate since national reporting began in 1953. However, despite this improvement progress towards eliminating tuberculosis has slowed.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the bacterial agents which causes tuberculosis in humans. Humans are the only reservoir for this particular bacterium.
Mycobacterium R. Graham positive rods that are usually found in the water or soil. However, there are a few pathogens which can affect both animals and humans. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of these mycobacteria that can affect humans.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an aerobic bacteria, which means that it requires oxygen in order to live. For this reason classic cases of tuberculosis finds the bacteria complexes in well aerated lobes of the lungs.
Physicians in ancient Greece called this illness “phthisis” because all of the wasting character of the disease. During the 17th and 18th centuries, tuberculosis caused up to 25% of all deaths in Europe, not just those from bacterial infection. In 1882 Robert Koch isolated the Bacillus anions established tuberculosis as an infectious disease. Patients were isolated in sanitariums and given ineffective treatments. Up until the first half of the 20th century no effective treatment was available. The first antibiotic introduced to fight tuberculosis became available in 1946.
Tuberculosis continues to be a major worldwide health problem. Statistics show us that each person with untreated active tuberculosis will in fact approximately 10 to 15 people each year. And the World Health Organization estimates that a new infection occurs every second of every day. In 1993 the World Health Organization declared tuberculosis a global emergency.
Tuberculosis is passed from person to person via droplets from an infected cough, sneeze or tiny droplets of saliva or mucus. Once the bacteria reaches the lungs space they are transmitted to the lymphatic system and spread to other organs. The bacteria will multiply in Oregon‘s that have high oxygen pressures, such as the upper lobes of the long, the kidney, bone marrow and the brain.
Individuals who are at risk for tuberculosis include people suffering from HIV or AIDS, low socioeconomic status, alcoholism, homelessness, those living in crowded living conditions, those suffering from diseases that weaken the immune system and health care workers.
In general, tuberculosis is preventable. The best way to control TB is to diagnose and treat the infection early before active disease develops and can be spread quickly. Individuals can take measures to protect themselves and others by keeping their immune system healthy, getting tested regularly, taking preventative therapy and finishing an entire course of medication if it is recommended.
If you are diagnosed with tuberculosis and speak getting treated you can help to keep your family and friends from getting sacked by staying home in the first few weeks of treatment, getting active and adequate ventilation in your home and wearing a mask when you’re around people during the first three weeks of treatment to help lessen the risk of transmission.
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